Phaeochromocytomas are rare neuroendocrine tumours secreting high levels of catecholamines, able to exert serious metabolic and cardiovascular effects. The serious and potentially lethal cardiovascular complications of these tumours are due to the potent effects of secreted catecholamines, especially noradrenaline, the main transmitter released from sympathetic nerve terminals. Hypertension, tachycardia, pallor, headache and anxiety, usually dominate the clinical presentation. Occasionally, patients with predominantly epinephrine-secreting tumours present hypotension or even shock. Other cardiovascular complications of pheochromocytoma include ischaemic heart disease, acute myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmias, heart failure due to toxic cardiomyopathy, or pulmonary edema. Catecholamines have been shown to influence the extracellular matrix with collagen deposition and subsequent fibrosis in the arterial wall and in the myocardium. These morphofunctional changes of the myocardium and of arterial wall can be emphasized by ultrasound imaging. Indeed, ultrasound imaging of the myocardium and arterial wall not only identifies wall thickness but also contains information on texture that may be revealed by acoustic tissue characterization. The latter can be quantified through videodensitometric analysis of echographic images or through ultrasonic integrated backscatter signal analysis. This paper reviews cardiovascular complications in patients with pheochromocytoma and utility of the new ultrasound technique as backscatter signal. It is useful for evaluating preclinical pathological morphofunctional changes of the myocardium and arterial wall, characterized by increased collagen content in pheochromocytoma patients. The recognition of early catecholamine-induced alterations in patients with pheochromocytoma, is important to prevent at least morbidity and mortality, before surgical treatment.
|Autori:||Galetta F; Franzoni F; Bernini G; Poupak F; Carpi A; Cini G; Tocchini L; Antonelli A; Santoro G|
|Titolo:||Cardiovascular complications in patients with pheochromocytoma: A mini-review|
|Anno del prodotto:||2010|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/j.biopha.2009.09.014|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|