Complex problems can be sometimes solved efficiently via recursive decomposition strategies. In this line, the tree decomposition approach equips problems modelled as graphs with tree-like parsing structures. Following Milner’s flowgraph algebra, in a previous paper two of the authors introduced a strong network algebra to represent open graphs (up&nbsp;to isomorphism), so that homomorphic properties of open graphs can be computed via structural recursion. This paper extends this graphical-algebraic foundation to tree decomposable graphs. The correspondence is shown: (i)&nbsp;on the algebraic side by a loose network algebra, which relaxes the restriction reordering and scope extension axioms of the strong one; and (ii)&nbsp;on the graphical side by Milner’s binding bigraphs, and elementary tree decompositions. Conveniently, an interpreted loose algebra gives the evaluation complexity of each graph decomposition. As a key contribution, we apply our results to dynamic programming (DP). The initial statement of the problem is transformed into a term (this is the secondary optimisation problem of DP). Noting that when the scope extension axiom is applied to reduce the scope of the restriction, then also the complexity is reduced (or not changed), only so-called canonical terms (in the loose algebra) are considered. Then, the canonical term is evaluated obtaining a solution which is locally optimal for complexity. Finding a global optimum remains an NP-hard problem.

### Algebras for Tree Decomposable Graphs

#### Abstract

Complex problems can be sometimes solved efficiently via recursive decomposition strategies. In this line, the tree decomposition approach equips problems modelled as graphs with tree-like parsing structures. Following Milner’s flowgraph algebra, in a previous paper two of the authors introduced a strong network algebra to represent open graphs (up to isomorphism), so that homomorphic properties of open graphs can be computed via structural recursion. This paper extends this graphical-algebraic foundation to tree decomposable graphs. The correspondence is shown: (i) on the algebraic side by a loose network algebra, which relaxes the restriction reordering and scope extension axioms of the strong one; and (ii) on the graphical side by Milner’s binding bigraphs, and elementary tree decompositions. Conveniently, an interpreted loose algebra gives the evaluation complexity of each graph decomposition. As a key contribution, we apply our results to dynamic programming (DP). The initial statement of the problem is transformed into a term (this is the secondary optimisation problem of DP). Noting that when the scope extension axiom is applied to reduce the scope of the restriction, then also the complexity is reduced (or not changed), only so-called canonical terms (in the loose algebra) are considered. Then, the canonical term is evaluated obtaining a solution which is locally optimal for complexity. Finding a global optimum remains an NP-hard problem.
##### Scheda breve Scheda completa Scheda completa (DC)
2020
978-3-030-51371-9
978-3-030-51372-6
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: `https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1065260`
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