Peripheral nerve sheath tumours (PNST) arise from the cells surrounding the axons of peripheral nerves. The term PNST has been proposed to include those neoplasms involving peripheral nerves and nerve roots because of their presumed common cell of origin, the Schwann cell, and similar biological behaviour. Twenty-six cases of canine PNSTs were reviewed. Data on tumour location, history, clinical signs, physical and neurogical examination, imaging studies, and surgical treatment were accurately evaluated. All the subjects were included in a 2-years follow-up study to determine the disease free survival intervals, overall survival times, and the causes of death. Tumours were divided into three groups based on the surgeon’s description of tumour location at the time of surgery: tumours involving nerves of brachial or lumbosacral plexus (1° group; n=1); tumours involving nerves distal to the brachial or lumbosacral plexus (2° group; n=11), and tumour with subcutaneous localization (3° group; n=14). Representative portions of examined tumours were submitted to routine histological examination for tumour grading and to determine mitotic index and margin evaluation. Location of the tumor, macroscopic intraoperative observation of tumor’s infiltration along with histopathologic grading, seems to be useful data to predict tumor’s behavior.
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