The trichothecenes are a very large family of chemically related toxins classified in 4 groups (A-D). The most toxic are those belonging to the group A (diacetoxyscirpenol [DAS], T-2 toxin [T-2], HT-2 toxin [HT-2]) and B (deoxynivalenol [DON], nivalenol [NIV], fusarenon-X [FX]). Potentially hazardous concentrations of the trichothecene mycotoxins can occur naturally in moldy grains, cereals, and agricultural products and have been found worldwide. Although the toxicity can change in severity among the members of trichothecene mycotoxins, the main toxic effects produced are directed to the gastrointestinal, dermal, immune and hematopoietic systems. The toxicokinetics of trichothecenes are essential to understand the potential effects in animals. In detail, the metabolism of trichothecenes does not activate but rather deactivate their biological activity. It can be phase I, II and bacterial and has different implication according to the contaminated animal species. Pigs and poultry seems to be the more sensitive animal species, while ruminants the less. Trichothecenes are expected to contaminate substrates with multiple rather than a single mycotoxin. The synergistic action on the toxicity of trichothecenes mixture will be also evaluated.
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