Plant trichomes are outgrowths developed from an epidermal pavement cells of leaves and other organs. Trichomes (also called 'hairs') play well-recognized roles in defense against insect herbivores, forming a physical barrier that obstructs insect movement and mediating chemical defenses. In addition, trichomes can act as a mechanosensory switch, transducing mechanical stimuli (e.g., insect movement) into physiological signals, helping the plant to respond to insect attacks. Hairs can also modulate plant responses to abiotic stresses, such as water loss, an excess of light and temperature, and reflect light to protect plants against UV radiation. The structure of trichomes is species-specific and this trait is generally related to their function. These outgrowths are easily analyzed and their origin represents an outstanding subject to study epidermal cell fate and patterning in plant organs. In leaves, the developmental control of the trichomatous complement has highlighted a regulatory network based on four fundamental elements: (i) genes that activate and/or modify the normal cell cycle of epidermal pavement cells (i.e., endoreduplication cycles); (ii) transcription factors that create an activator/repressor complex with a central role in determining cell fate, initiation, and differentiation of an epidermal cell in trichomes; (iii) evidence that underlines the interplay of the aforesaid complex with different classes of phytohormones; (iv) epigenetic mechanisms involved in trichome development. Here, we reviewed the role of genes in the development of trichomes, as well as the interaction between genes and hormones. Furthermore, we reported basic studies about the regulation of the cell cycle and the complexity of trichomes. Finally, this review focused on the epigenetic factors involved in the initiation and development of hairs, mainly on leaves.

The dynamic genetic-hormonal regulatory network controlling the trichome development in leaves

Fambrini M.;Pugliesi C.
2019-01-01

Abstract

Plant trichomes are outgrowths developed from an epidermal pavement cells of leaves and other organs. Trichomes (also called 'hairs') play well-recognized roles in defense against insect herbivores, forming a physical barrier that obstructs insect movement and mediating chemical defenses. In addition, trichomes can act as a mechanosensory switch, transducing mechanical stimuli (e.g., insect movement) into physiological signals, helping the plant to respond to insect attacks. Hairs can also modulate plant responses to abiotic stresses, such as water loss, an excess of light and temperature, and reflect light to protect plants against UV radiation. The structure of trichomes is species-specific and this trait is generally related to their function. These outgrowths are easily analyzed and their origin represents an outstanding subject to study epidermal cell fate and patterning in plant organs. In leaves, the developmental control of the trichomatous complement has highlighted a regulatory network based on four fundamental elements: (i) genes that activate and/or modify the normal cell cycle of epidermal pavement cells (i.e., endoreduplication cycles); (ii) transcription factors that create an activator/repressor complex with a central role in determining cell fate, initiation, and differentiation of an epidermal cell in trichomes; (iii) evidence that underlines the interplay of the aforesaid complex with different classes of phytohormones; (iv) epigenetic mechanisms involved in trichome development. Here, we reviewed the role of genes in the development of trichomes, as well as the interaction between genes and hormones. Furthermore, we reported basic studies about the regulation of the cell cycle and the complexity of trichomes. Finally, this review focused on the epigenetic factors involved in the initiation and development of hairs, mainly on leaves.
2019
Fambrini, M.; Pugliesi, C.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1002791
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