Engineered nanoparticles (NP) comprise various classes of technological materials with innovative properties. Although inhalation is less likely for engineered nanomaterials (NM) compared with ambient or mineral dust particles, this can happen during bulk manufacture and handling of freely dispersible NP. In this mini-review we summarize recent data on NP and CNT (carbon nanotubes) hazards, with particular emphasis on toxic effect on lung and in cell culture of lung origin. Owing to the highest deposition efficiency in the alveolar area, primary interactions of NM occur with epithelial and alveolar macrophages (AM). Scarce data are available to date on the cell mechanisms underlying NM permeability across the airway epithelium, but the absorption of NP through airways does not seem to require epithelial mediation, suggesting rather the involvement of alternative mechanisms such as AM-dependent dissemination. The relationship between toxicity and particle characteristics may be complex, involving size, surface area and surface chemistry. Some NM act according to an oxidative stress paradigm, but possible NM interactions with biological systems may result in additional forms of injury. In particular, CNT, a man-made forms of crystalline carbon, are currently attracting intense research efforts because of their unique properties, which make them suitable for many uses in biomedicine and pharmacology. Although CNT stimulate cytokine production and induce inflammatory reactions, they could behave also as conventional fibers, showing the ability to cause lung granulomas and fibrotic reactions in experimental animals. Production and marketing of NM is advancing much more rapidly than research on NM safety. This phenomenon will have a strong impact on the approach of occupational physicians to health risks from NP. In literature increasing evidence suggests that NM are potentially hazardous to humans and that strict industrial hygiene measures should be taken to limit exposure during their manipulation. Moreover, given the uncertainty about the NM features endowed with pathogenetic relevance, the toxicological properties of a specific NP should be evaluated on an individual basis by new screening strategies based on current acquisitions.
|Autori interni:||MIGLIORE, LUCIA|
|Autori:||BERGAMASCHI E; BUSSOLATI O; MAGRINI A; BOTTINI M; MIGLIORE L; BELLUCCI S; IAVICOLI I; BERGAMASCHI A|
|Titolo:||Nanomaterials and lung toxicity: interactions with airways cells and relevance for occupational health risk assessment|
|Anno del prodotto:||2006|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|