OBJECTIVE Odontoid process fractures are very common in both young and geriatric patients. The axial trabecular architecture of the dens appears to be crucial for physiological and biomechanical function of the C1–2 joint. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the presence of a Y-shaped trabecular structure of the dens on axial CT and to describe its anatomical and biomechanical implications. METHODS Fifty-four C2 odontoid processes in healthy subjects were prospectively examined for the presence of a Y-shaped trabecular structure at the odontocentral synchondrosis level with a dental cone beam CT scan. Length, width, and axial area of the odontoid process were measured in all subjects. In addition, measurements of the one-third right anterior area of the Y-shaped structure were taken. RESULTS The Y-shaped trabecular structure was found in 79.6% of cases. Length and width of the odontoid process were 13.5 ± 0.6 mm and 11.2 ± 0.9 mm, respectively. The mean area of the odontoid process at the odontocentral synchondrosis was 93.5 ± 4.3 mm2, whereas the mean one-third right anterior area of the odontoid process at the same level was 29.3 ± 2.5 mm2. The mean area of the odontoid process and its length and width were similar in men and women (p > 0.05). No significant difference was found in the mean area of the odontoid process in people older than 65 years (94 ± 4.2 mm2) compared to people younger than 65 years (93.3 ± 4.4 mm2; p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS The authors identified a new anatomical entity, named the Y-shaped trabecular structure of the odontoid process, on axial CT scans. This structure appears to be the result of bone transformation induced by the elevated dynamic loading at the C1–2 level. The presence of the Y-shaped structure provides new insights into biomechanical responses of C2 under physiological loading and traumatic conditions.

The Y-shaped trabecular bone structure in the odontoid process of the axis: A CT scan study in 54 healthy subjects and biomechanical considerations

Montemurro N.
Primo
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Perrini P.
Secondo
Supervision
;
2019

Abstract

OBJECTIVE Odontoid process fractures are very common in both young and geriatric patients. The axial trabecular architecture of the dens appears to be crucial for physiological and biomechanical function of the C1–2 joint. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the presence of a Y-shaped trabecular structure of the dens on axial CT and to describe its anatomical and biomechanical implications. METHODS Fifty-four C2 odontoid processes in healthy subjects were prospectively examined for the presence of a Y-shaped trabecular structure at the odontocentral synchondrosis level with a dental cone beam CT scan. Length, width, and axial area of the odontoid process were measured in all subjects. In addition, measurements of the one-third right anterior area of the Y-shaped structure were taken. RESULTS The Y-shaped trabecular structure was found in 79.6% of cases. Length and width of the odontoid process were 13.5 ± 0.6 mm and 11.2 ± 0.9 mm, respectively. The mean area of the odontoid process at the odontocentral synchondrosis was 93.5 ± 4.3 mm2, whereas the mean one-third right anterior area of the odontoid process at the same level was 29.3 ± 2.5 mm2. The mean area of the odontoid process and its length and width were similar in men and women (p > 0.05). No significant difference was found in the mean area of the odontoid process in people older than 65 years (94 ± 4.2 mm2) compared to people younger than 65 years (93.3 ± 4.4 mm2; p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS The authors identified a new anatomical entity, named the Y-shaped trabecular structure of the odontoid process, on axial CT scans. This structure appears to be the result of bone transformation induced by the elevated dynamic loading at the C1–2 level. The presence of the Y-shaped structure provides new insights into biomechanical responses of C2 under physiological loading and traumatic conditions.
Montemurro, N.; Perrini, P.; Mangini, V.; Galli, M.; Papini, A.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11568/1006514
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