The field of thyroid hormone signaling has grown more complex in recent years. In particular, it has been suggested that some thyroid hormone derivatives, tentatively named "novel thyroid hormones" or "active thyroid hormone metabolites", may act as independent chemical messengers. They include 3,5-diiodothyronine (T2), 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM), and several iodothyroacetic acids, i.e., 3,5,3',5'-thyroacetic acid (TA4), 3,5,3'-thyroacetic acid (TA3), and 3-thyroacetic acid (TA1). We summarize the present knowledge on these compounds, namely their biosynthetic pathways, endogenous levels, molecular targets, and the functional effects elicited in experimental preparations or intact animals after exogenous administration. Their physiological and pathophysiological role is discussed, and potential therapeutic applications are outlined. The requirements needed to qualify these substances as chemical messengers must still be validated, although promising evidence has been collected. At present, the best candidate to the role of independent chemical messenger appears to be T1AM, and its most interesting effects concern metabolism and brain function. The responses elicited in experimental animals have suggested potential therapeutic applications. TA3 has an established role in thyroid hormone resistance syndromes, and is under investigation in Allen-Herndon-Dudley syndrome. Other potential targets are represented by obesity and dyslipidemia (for T2 and T1AM); dementia and degenerative brain disease (for T1AM and TA1); cancer (for T1AM and TA4). Another intriguing and unexplored question is the potential relevance of these metabolites in the clinical picture of hypothyroidism and in the response to replacement therapy.
|Autori:||Zucchi, R.; Rutigliano, G.; Saponaro, F.|
|Titolo:||Novel thyroid hormones|
|Anno del prodotto:||2019|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1007/s12020-019-02018-4|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|