We provide a comprehensive review of the available evidence on the pathophysiological implications of genetic variants in the human trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) superfamily. Genes coding for trace amine-associated receptors (taars) represent a multigene family of G-protein-coupled receptors, clustered to a small genomic region of 108 kb located in chromosome 6q23, which has been consistently identified by linkage analyses as a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia and affective disorders. Most TAARs are expressed in brain areas involved in emotions, reward and cognition. TAARs are activated by endogenous trace amines and thyronamines, and evidence for a modulatory action on other monaminergic systems has been reported. Therefore, linkage analyses were followed by fine mapping association studies in schizophrenia and affective disorders. However, none of these reports has received sufficient universal replication, so their status remains uncertain. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in taars have emerged as susceptibility loci from genome-wide association studies investigating migraine and brain development, but none of the detected variants reached the threshold for genome-wide significance. In the last decade, technological advances enabled single-gene or whole-exome sequencing, thus allowing the detection of rare genetic variants, which may have a greater impact on the risk of complex disorders. Using these approaches, several taars (especially taar1) variants have been detected in patients with mental and metabolic disorders, and in some cases, defective receptor function has been demonstrated in vitro. Finally, with the use of transcriptomic and peptidomic techniques, dysregulations of TAARs (especially TAAR6) have been identified in brain disorders characterized by cognitive impairment.

Molecular Variants in Human Trace Amine-Associated Receptors and Their Implications in Mental and Metabolic Disorders

Rutigliano, Grazia;Zucchi, Riccardo
2019-01-01

Abstract

We provide a comprehensive review of the available evidence on the pathophysiological implications of genetic variants in the human trace amine-associated receptor (TAAR) superfamily. Genes coding for trace amine-associated receptors (taars) represent a multigene family of G-protein-coupled receptors, clustered to a small genomic region of 108 kb located in chromosome 6q23, which has been consistently identified by linkage analyses as a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia and affective disorders. Most TAARs are expressed in brain areas involved in emotions, reward and cognition. TAARs are activated by endogenous trace amines and thyronamines, and evidence for a modulatory action on other monaminergic systems has been reported. Therefore, linkage analyses were followed by fine mapping association studies in schizophrenia and affective disorders. However, none of these reports has received sufficient universal replication, so their status remains uncertain. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in taars have emerged as susceptibility loci from genome-wide association studies investigating migraine and brain development, but none of the detected variants reached the threshold for genome-wide significance. In the last decade, technological advances enabled single-gene or whole-exome sequencing, thus allowing the detection of rare genetic variants, which may have a greater impact on the risk of complex disorders. Using these approaches, several taars (especially taar1) variants have been detected in patients with mental and metabolic disorders, and in some cases, defective receptor function has been demonstrated in vitro. Finally, with the use of transcriptomic and peptidomic techniques, dysregulations of TAARs (especially TAAR6) have been identified in brain disorders characterized by cognitive impairment.
2019
Rutigliano, Grazia; Zucchi, Riccardo
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1015378
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 6
  • Scopus 27
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 23
social impact