A Th1 immune-preponderance has been shown in the immunopathogenesis of autoimmune thyroiditis (AT), Graves' disease (GD) and Graves' Ophthalmopathy (GO), in which the Th1-chemokines (CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11), and their (C-X-C)R3 receptor, have a crucial role. Methimazole, and corticosteroids have been shown to modulate these chemokines; several efforts have been done to modulate the autoimmune reaction with other drugs, i.e. PPAR-γ, or -α ligands, or antibodies, or small molecules directed against CXCL10, or CXCR3. Antigen-specific therapy for GD, by inducing T cell tolerance through an immunization with TSH-R peptides, has been published. Drugs targeting cytokines [anti-TNFα (Etanercept), and anti-IL-6 (Tocilizumab)], and RTX (a chimeric monoclonal antibody vs. CD20) have been used in GO, with promising results. Teprotumumab (a human monoclonal anti-IGF-1R blocking antibody) has been investigated in a trial, showing it was very effective in GO patients. Still, more studies are needed for new therapies targeting autoimmune thyroid disorders.

Novel therapies for thyroid autoimmune diseases: An update

Ferrari S. M.;Fallahi P.;Elia G.;Ragusa F.;Camastra S.;Antonelli A.
2020-01-01

Abstract

A Th1 immune-preponderance has been shown in the immunopathogenesis of autoimmune thyroiditis (AT), Graves' disease (GD) and Graves' Ophthalmopathy (GO), in which the Th1-chemokines (CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11), and their (C-X-C)R3 receptor, have a crucial role. Methimazole, and corticosteroids have been shown to modulate these chemokines; several efforts have been done to modulate the autoimmune reaction with other drugs, i.e. PPAR-γ, or -α ligands, or antibodies, or small molecules directed against CXCL10, or CXCR3. Antigen-specific therapy for GD, by inducing T cell tolerance through an immunization with TSH-R peptides, has been published. Drugs targeting cytokines [anti-TNFα (Etanercept), and anti-IL-6 (Tocilizumab)], and RTX (a chimeric monoclonal antibody vs. CD20) have been used in GO, with promising results. Teprotumumab (a human monoclonal anti-IGF-1R blocking antibody) has been investigated in a trial, showing it was very effective in GO patients. Still, more studies are needed for new therapies targeting autoimmune thyroid disorders.
2020
Ferrari, S. M.; Fallahi, P.; Elia, G.; Ragusa, F.; Camastra, S.; Paparo, S. R.; Giusti, C.; Gonnella, D.; Ruffilli, I.; Shoenfeld, Y.; Antonelli, A.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1017767
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