Sub-macular hemorrhage (SMH) is a hematic collection between the neurosensory retina and the retinal pigment epithelium; one of its causes is ocular blunt trauma, that usually affects young patients. Persisting SMH leads to a damage of photoreceptors mediated by three main mechanisms: iron-related toxicity, impairment of diffusion of oxygen and nutriment, mechanical damage due to clot contraction. Since early photoreceptors' damage has been reported within 24 h, it is suggested to provide an early treatment, although there are no guidelines or consensus between authors regarding treatment strategies. The aim of this review was to present and compare available treatment options, like intravitreal tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) associated with pneumatic displacement, pneumatic displacement alone, subretinal tPA injection with pneumatic displacement, and intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injection. All procedures obtained consistent results, though the most effective seemed to be pars plana vitrectomy, subretinal tPA and gas tamponade, probably due to a quicker liquefaction and displacement of the clot. Limitations concern the greater invasiveness and the higher incidence of complications. Alternatively, intravitreal injection of tPA and gas may represent a less invasive option with fewer complications. Intravitreal injection of gas and prone position could be preferred in young patients without coexisting ocular pathology, being a minimally invasive treatment, with lower risk of complications and a good visual recovery. Anti-VEGF agent have found, to date, limited employment in cases of traumatic SMH even though they may be useful as alternative or adjuvant therapy. Most of the published literature consists of small studies and case reports, therefore further investigations and larger clinical trials are required to fully understand safety and efficacy of the procedures. A preoperative comprehensive evaluation may be helpful to realize a surgical plan tailored on patient.

Traumatic submacular hemorrhage: Available treatment options and synthesis of the literature

Loiudice P.;Menchini M.;Sartini F.;Figus M.;Nardi M.
2019-01-01

Abstract

Sub-macular hemorrhage (SMH) is a hematic collection between the neurosensory retina and the retinal pigment epithelium; one of its causes is ocular blunt trauma, that usually affects young patients. Persisting SMH leads to a damage of photoreceptors mediated by three main mechanisms: iron-related toxicity, impairment of diffusion of oxygen and nutriment, mechanical damage due to clot contraction. Since early photoreceptors' damage has been reported within 24 h, it is suggested to provide an early treatment, although there are no guidelines or consensus between authors regarding treatment strategies. The aim of this review was to present and compare available treatment options, like intravitreal tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) associated with pneumatic displacement, pneumatic displacement alone, subretinal tPA injection with pneumatic displacement, and intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injection. All procedures obtained consistent results, though the most effective seemed to be pars plana vitrectomy, subretinal tPA and gas tamponade, probably due to a quicker liquefaction and displacement of the clot. Limitations concern the greater invasiveness and the higher incidence of complications. Alternatively, intravitreal injection of tPA and gas may represent a less invasive option with fewer complications. Intravitreal injection of gas and prone position could be preferred in young patients without coexisting ocular pathology, being a minimally invasive treatment, with lower risk of complications and a good visual recovery. Anti-VEGF agent have found, to date, limited employment in cases of traumatic SMH even though they may be useful as alternative or adjuvant therapy. Most of the published literature consists of small studies and case reports, therefore further investigations and larger clinical trials are required to fully understand safety and efficacy of the procedures. A preoperative comprehensive evaluation may be helpful to realize a surgical plan tailored on patient.
2019
Casini, G.; Loiudice, P.; Menchini, M.; Sartini, F.; De Cilla, S.; Figus, M.; Nardi, M.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1017980
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