n April 5, 2003, Stromboli volcano (Italy) produced the most violent explosion of the past 50 years. The event was exceptionally well documented thanks to the presence on the island of several scientists and a large number of instruments deployed over the preceding months to monitor the effusive eruption that began in December 2002. Integration of visual documentation, deposit features and geophysical data allowed an accurate reconstruction of the explosive event and its dynamics. The eruption consisted of a 8-min long explosive event which evolved through four phases whose timing was precisely recorded by an infrared thermometer located about 450 m from the summit crater. Phases 2 and 3 lasted 39 and 42 s, respectively. Both had an impulsive character, were responsible for ejecting almost the entire mass of the pyroclastic products. Phases I and 4 represented, respectively, a short-lived precursory event and a waning tale. During Phase 2, meter-sized ballistic blocks were launched with velocities of 170 m/s to altitudes of up to 1400 m above the craters. These fell on the volcano flanks and on the village of Ginostra, about 2 km distant from the vent. A vertical jet rose above the craters which developed to feed a convective plume that reached a height of up to 4 km. The calculated mass of the Phase 2 fallout deposit and mass discharge rate were 1.1-1.4 x 10(8) kg and 2.8-3.6 x 10(6) kg/s, respectively. During Phase 3 a scoria flow deposit, with an estimated volume of 0.9-1.1 X 10(4) m(3), was erupted from the same vent that fed the ongoing sustained lava flow. The average mass discharge rate for this phase was 2.5-3.1 x 10(5) kg/s. Products emitted during Phases 2 and 3 consisted of lithic and fresh magmatic material in similar proportions. The juvenile fraction consisted of a deep-originated, almost aphyric, highly vesicular pumice mingled with a shallow-derived, crystal-rich, moderately vesicular scoria. Similarities with the eruption dynamics of other historical paroxysms at Stromboli makes the April 5, 2003 explosion representative of these highly energetic events that constitute the most hazardous volcanic phenomena at Stromboli volcano.

A case history of paroxysmal explosion at Stromboli: Timing and dynamics of the April 5, 2003 event

ROSI, MAURO;PISTOLESI, MARCO;
2006-01-01

Abstract

n April 5, 2003, Stromboli volcano (Italy) produced the most violent explosion of the past 50 years. The event was exceptionally well documented thanks to the presence on the island of several scientists and a large number of instruments deployed over the preceding months to monitor the effusive eruption that began in December 2002. Integration of visual documentation, deposit features and geophysical data allowed an accurate reconstruction of the explosive event and its dynamics. The eruption consisted of a 8-min long explosive event which evolved through four phases whose timing was precisely recorded by an infrared thermometer located about 450 m from the summit crater. Phases 2 and 3 lasted 39 and 42 s, respectively. Both had an impulsive character, were responsible for ejecting almost the entire mass of the pyroclastic products. Phases I and 4 represented, respectively, a short-lived precursory event and a waning tale. During Phase 2, meter-sized ballistic blocks were launched with velocities of 170 m/s to altitudes of up to 1400 m above the craters. These fell on the volcano flanks and on the village of Ginostra, about 2 km distant from the vent. A vertical jet rose above the craters which developed to feed a convective plume that reached a height of up to 4 km. The calculated mass of the Phase 2 fallout deposit and mass discharge rate were 1.1-1.4 x 10(8) kg and 2.8-3.6 x 10(6) kg/s, respectively. During Phase 3 a scoria flow deposit, with an estimated volume of 0.9-1.1 X 10(4) m(3), was erupted from the same vent that fed the ongoing sustained lava flow. The average mass discharge rate for this phase was 2.5-3.1 x 10(5) kg/s. Products emitted during Phases 2 and 3 consisted of lithic and fresh magmatic material in similar proportions. The juvenile fraction consisted of a deep-originated, almost aphyric, highly vesicular pumice mingled with a shallow-derived, crystal-rich, moderately vesicular scoria. Similarities with the eruption dynamics of other historical paroxysms at Stromboli makes the April 5, 2003 explosion representative of these highly energetic events that constitute the most hazardous volcanic phenomena at Stromboli volcano.
2006
Rosi, Mauro; A., Bertagnini; A. J. L., Harris; L., Pioli; Pistolesi, Marco; M., Ripepe
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/102625
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 137
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 132
social impact