Esophageal cancer remains a challenging disease due to limited treatment options and poor prognosis. In recent years, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have been proven to be safe and effective in the treatment of highly lethal malignancies, such as non‐small cell lung cancer and melanoma. Recent clinical trials also showed promising activity in immune checkpoint inhibitors in pretreated advanced esophageal carcinoma and a potentially significant impact on the outcome of selected patients, independently of histology. Combination studies evaluating immunotherapy and chemotherapy and, in localized disease, radiotherapy are in progress and will hopefully confirm their promises in the near future. However, reliable predictive biomarkers are still lacking. Indeed, at present, the role of programmed cell death ligand 1 expression and other factors (such as microsatellite instability and tumor mutational burden) as predictive biomarkers of benefit to immune checkpoint inhibitors is still controversial. Our aim was to explore the rationale of ICIs in esophageal cancer, review the results already available in multiple settings, and investigate future perspectives with single‐agent and combination strategies.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors in esophageal cancers: Are we finally finding the right path in the mist?

Vivaldi C.;Catanese S.;Massa V.;Pecora I.;Salani F.;Vasile E.;Falcone A.;
2020-01-01

Abstract

Esophageal cancer remains a challenging disease due to limited treatment options and poor prognosis. In recent years, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have been proven to be safe and effective in the treatment of highly lethal malignancies, such as non‐small cell lung cancer and melanoma. Recent clinical trials also showed promising activity in immune checkpoint inhibitors in pretreated advanced esophageal carcinoma and a potentially significant impact on the outcome of selected patients, independently of histology. Combination studies evaluating immunotherapy and chemotherapy and, in localized disease, radiotherapy are in progress and will hopefully confirm their promises in the near future. However, reliable predictive biomarkers are still lacking. Indeed, at present, the role of programmed cell death ligand 1 expression and other factors (such as microsatellite instability and tumor mutational burden) as predictive biomarkers of benefit to immune checkpoint inhibitors is still controversial. Our aim was to explore the rationale of ICIs in esophageal cancer, review the results already available in multiple settings, and investigate future perspectives with single‐agent and combination strategies.
2020
Vivaldi, C.; Catanese, S.; Massa, V.; Pecora, I.; Salani, F.; Santi, S.; Lencioni, M.; Vasile, E.; Falcone, A.; Fornaro, L.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1044422
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