Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic environmental pollutant released from the smelting and refining of metals and cigarette smoking. Oral exposure to cadmium may result in adverse effects on a number of tissues, including the central nervous system (CNS). In fact, its toxicity has been related to neurological disorders, as well as neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Under normal conditions, Cd barely reaches the brain in adults because of the presence of the blood–brain barrier (BBB); however, it has been demonstrated that Cd-dependent BBB alteration contributes to pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. However, the mechanism underlying Cd-dependent BBB alteration remain obscure. Here, we investigated the signaling pathway of Cd-induced tight junction (TJ), F-actin, and vimentin protein disassembly in a rat brain endothelial cell line (RBE4). RBE4 cells treated with 10 μM cadmium chloride (CdCl2) showed a dose- and time-dependent significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. This phenomenon was coincident with the alteration of the TJ zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), F-actin, and vimentin proteins. The Cd-dependent ROS increase elicited the upregulation of GRP78 expression levels, a chaperone involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress that induces caspase-3 activation. Further signal profiling by the pannexin-1 (PANX1) specific inhibitor 10Panx revealed a PANX1-independent increase in ATP spillage in Cd-treated endothelial cells. Our results point out that a ROS-dependent ER stress-mediated signaling pathway involving caspase-3 activation and ATP release is behind the BBB morphological alterations induced by Cd.

Effects of Cadmium on ZO-1 Tight Junction Integrity of the Blood Brain Barrier

Branca J. J. V.;Morucci G.;Gonnelli C.;Di Cesare Mannelli L.;Pacini A.
2019-01-01

Abstract

Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic environmental pollutant released from the smelting and refining of metals and cigarette smoking. Oral exposure to cadmium may result in adverse effects on a number of tissues, including the central nervous system (CNS). In fact, its toxicity has been related to neurological disorders, as well as neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Under normal conditions, Cd barely reaches the brain in adults because of the presence of the blood–brain barrier (BBB); however, it has been demonstrated that Cd-dependent BBB alteration contributes to pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. However, the mechanism underlying Cd-dependent BBB alteration remain obscure. Here, we investigated the signaling pathway of Cd-induced tight junction (TJ), F-actin, and vimentin protein disassembly in a rat brain endothelial cell line (RBE4). RBE4 cells treated with 10 μM cadmium chloride (CdCl2) showed a dose- and time-dependent significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. This phenomenon was coincident with the alteration of the TJ zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), F-actin, and vimentin proteins. The Cd-dependent ROS increase elicited the upregulation of GRP78 expression levels, a chaperone involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress that induces caspase-3 activation. Further signal profiling by the pannexin-1 (PANX1) specific inhibitor 10Panx revealed a PANX1-independent increase in ATP spillage in Cd-treated endothelial cells. Our results point out that a ROS-dependent ER stress-mediated signaling pathway involving caspase-3 activation and ATP release is behind the BBB morphological alterations induced by Cd.
2019
Branca, J. J. V.; Maresca, M.; Morucci, G.; Mello, T.; Becatti, M.; Pazzagli, L.; Colzi, I.; Gonnelli, C.; Carrino, D.; Paternostro, F.; Nicoletti, C.; Ghelardini, C.; Gulisano, M.; Di Cesare Mannelli, L.; Pacini, A.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1053231
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