Lymphocytes (B, T and natural killer cells) and immunoglobulins are essential for the adaptive immune response against external pathogens. Flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) kits are the gold standards to detect immunoglobulins, B cells and T cells, whereas the impedance measurement is the most used technique for natural killer cells. For point-of-care, fast and low-cost devices, biosensors could be suitable for the reliable, stable and reproducible detection of immunoglobulins and lymphocytes. In the literature, such biosensors are commonly fabricated using antibodies, aptamers, proteins and nanomaterials, whereas electrochemical, optical and piezoelectric techniques are used for detection. This review describes how these measurement techniques and transducers can be used to fabricate biosensors for detecting lymphocytes and the total content of immunoglobulins. The various methods and configurations are reported, along with the advantages and current limitations.
|Autori:||Salvo, Pietro; Vivaldi, Federico M; Bonini, Andrea; Biagini, Denise; Bellagambi, Francesca G; Miliani, Filippo M; Francesco, Fabio Di; Lomonaco, Tommaso|
|Titolo:||Biosensors for Detecting Lymphocytes and Immunoglobulins|
|Anno del prodotto:||2020|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.3390/bios10110155|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|