Racemic ketoprofen (RS-KP) and its enantiomer, dexketoprofen (S(+)-KP) are widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and commonly detected in the aquatic environment. The present study has evaluated the toxicological effects of RS-KP and S(+)-KP on biotransformation and oxidative stress responses in gills and liver of Atlantic salmon. Fish were exposed for 10 days using different concentrations of RS-KP (1, 10 and 100 μg/L) and S(+)-KP (0.5, 5 and 50 μg/L). Biotransformation and oxidative stress responses were analysed at both transcript and functional levels. In the gills, significant inhibitory effect at transcriptional and enzymatic levels were observed for biotransformation and oxidative stress responses. On the contrary, biotransformation responses were significantly increased at transcriptional and translational levels in the liver, while the associated enzymatic activities did not parallel this trend and were inhibited and further demonstrated by principal component analysis (PCA). Our findings showed that both compounds produced comparable toxicological effects, by producing organ-specific effect differences. RS-KP and S(+)-KP did not bioaccumulate in fish muscle, either due to rapid metabolism or excretion as a result of their hydrophobic properties. Interestingly, the inhibitory effects observed in the gills suggest that these drugs may not undergo first pass metabolism, that might result to downstream differences in toxicological outcomes.

Novel organ-specific effects of Ketoprofen and its enantiomer, dexketoprofen on toxicological response transcripts and their functional products in salmon

Pretti Carlo;Luci Giacomo
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Intorre Luigi;Meucci Valentina;
2020-01-01

Abstract

Racemic ketoprofen (RS-KP) and its enantiomer, dexketoprofen (S(+)-KP) are widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and commonly detected in the aquatic environment. The present study has evaluated the toxicological effects of RS-KP and S(+)-KP on biotransformation and oxidative stress responses in gills and liver of Atlantic salmon. Fish were exposed for 10 days using different concentrations of RS-KP (1, 10 and 100 μg/L) and S(+)-KP (0.5, 5 and 50 μg/L). Biotransformation and oxidative stress responses were analysed at both transcript and functional levels. In the gills, significant inhibitory effect at transcriptional and enzymatic levels were observed for biotransformation and oxidative stress responses. On the contrary, biotransformation responses were significantly increased at transcriptional and translational levels in the liver, while the associated enzymatic activities did not parallel this trend and were inhibited and further demonstrated by principal component analysis (PCA). Our findings showed that both compounds produced comparable toxicological effects, by producing organ-specific effect differences. RS-KP and S(+)-KP did not bioaccumulate in fish muscle, either due to rapid metabolism or excretion as a result of their hydrophobic properties. Interestingly, the inhibitory effects observed in the gills suggest that these drugs may not undergo first pass metabolism, that might result to downstream differences in toxicological outcomes.
2020
Mennillo, Elvira; Pretti, Carlo; Cappelli, Francesca; Luci, Giacomo; Intorre, Luigi; Meucci, Valentina; Arukwe, Augustine
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1057791
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