Background: The lack of immune synergy with conventional chemoradiation could explain the failure of checkpoint inhibitors in current clinical trials for high-grade gliomas (HGGs). Objective: To analyze the impact of radiotherapy (RT), Temozolomide (TMZ) and antiprogrammed cell death protein 1 (αPD1) (as single or combined treatments) on the immune microenvironment of experimental HGGs. Methods: Mice harboring neurosphere /CT-2A HGGs received RT (4 Gy, single dose), TMZ (50 mg/kg, 4 doses) and αPD1 (100 μg, 3 doses) as monotherapies or combinations. The influence on survival, tumor volume, and tumor-infiltrating immune cells was analyzed. Results: RT increased total T cells (P = .0159) and cluster of differentiation (CD)8+ T cells (P = .0078) compared to TMZ. Lymphocyte subpopulations resulting from TMZ or αPD1 treatment were comparable with those of controls. RT reduced M2 tumor-associated macrophages/microglia (P = .0019) and monocytic myeloid derived suppressor cells (mMDSCs, P = .0003) compared to controls. The effect on mMDSC was also seen following TMZ and αPD1 treatment, although less pronounced (P = .0439 and P = .0538, respectively). Combining RT with TMZ reduced CD8+ T cells (P = .0145) compared to RT alone. Adding αPD1 partially mitigated this effect as shown by the increased CD8+ T cells/Tregs ratio, even if this result failed to reach statistical significance (P = .0973). Changing the combination sequence of RT, TMZ, and αPD1 did not alter survival nor the immune effects. Conclusion: RT, TMZ, and αPD1 modify the immune microenvironment of HGG. The combination of RT with TMZ induces a strong immune suppression which cannot be effectively counteracted by αPD1.

Radiotherapy, Temozolomide, and Antiprogrammed Cell Death Protein 1 Treatments Modulate the Immune Microenvironment in Experimental High-Grade Glioma

Giovannoni, Roberto;
2020-01-01

Abstract

Background: The lack of immune synergy with conventional chemoradiation could explain the failure of checkpoint inhibitors in current clinical trials for high-grade gliomas (HGGs). Objective: To analyze the impact of radiotherapy (RT), Temozolomide (TMZ) and antiprogrammed cell death protein 1 (αPD1) (as single or combined treatments) on the immune microenvironment of experimental HGGs. Methods: Mice harboring neurosphere /CT-2A HGGs received RT (4 Gy, single dose), TMZ (50 mg/kg, 4 doses) and αPD1 (100 μg, 3 doses) as monotherapies or combinations. The influence on survival, tumor volume, and tumor-infiltrating immune cells was analyzed. Results: RT increased total T cells (P = .0159) and cluster of differentiation (CD)8+ T cells (P = .0078) compared to TMZ. Lymphocyte subpopulations resulting from TMZ or αPD1 treatment were comparable with those of controls. RT reduced M2 tumor-associated macrophages/microglia (P = .0019) and monocytic myeloid derived suppressor cells (mMDSCs, P = .0003) compared to controls. The effect on mMDSC was also seen following TMZ and αPD1 treatment, although less pronounced (P = .0439 and P = .0538, respectively). Combining RT with TMZ reduced CD8+ T cells (P = .0145) compared to RT alone. Adding αPD1 partially mitigated this effect as shown by the increased CD8+ T cells/Tregs ratio, even if this result failed to reach statistical significance (P = .0973). Changing the combination sequence of RT, TMZ, and αPD1 did not alter survival nor the immune effects. Conclusion: RT, TMZ, and αPD1 modify the immune microenvironment of HGG. The combination of RT with TMZ induces a strong immune suppression which cannot be effectively counteracted by αPD1.
2020
Riva, Matteo; Wouters, Roxanne; Sterpin, Edmond; Giovannoni, Roberto; Boon, Louis; Himmelreich, Uwe; Gsell, Willy; Van Ranst, Marc; Coosemans, An
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1062238
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