In hot climate areas during the hottest hours of the day animals seek the protection of shade to mitigate the impact of the direct solar radiation. Thus the provision of shade can be of great relevance in the cattle management. The location of the shade structures is essential to make their shadow easily accessible by the animals. The shade structure position relatively to feedlot area would ensure that shade is kept within the pen during the afternoon. The form of the shadow depends on the slope of the shade material. The height of the structure affect the rate at which the shadow moves across the ground. General recommendations suggest that cattle should be provided with anywhere from 1,9 to 6,0 m2 of shade per head; in hot humid climates more open area for ventilation is recommended. Major design parameter for permanent shade structures include orientation and location on feedlot, floor space, height, ventilation, shade material and slope, feeding and water facilities, and waste management system. The aim of this paper is to set up a shadow tracking procedure to determine the best orientation and location on feedlot of a permanent shade structure. The algorithms depend on astronomical parameters such as latitude, Julian day, and hour angle; on structure parameters such as form, height, and slope of shade material.
|Autori:||BIBBIANI C; SALVATORE BRUNELLO CONSORTI|
|Titolo:||Shadow tracking procedure applied to feedlot shade structures|
|Anno del prodotto:||2006|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|