The radiate pseudanthium, with actinomorphic disk flowers surrounded by showy marginal zygomorphic ray flowers, is the most common inflorescence in the Helianthus genus. In Helianthus radula, ray flower primordia are normally absent at the dorsal domain of the inner phyllaries (discoid heads) while the occurrence of radiate inflorescences is uncommon. In Helianthus spp., flower symmetry and inflorescence architecture are mainly controlled by CYCLOIDEA (CYC)-like genes but the putative role of these genes in the development of discoid inflorescences has not been investigate. Three CYC genes of H. radula with a role in ray flower identity (HrCYC2c, HrCYC2d, and HrCYC2e) were isolated. The phylogenetic analysis placed these genes within the CYC2 subclade. We identified two different alleles for the HrCYC2c gene. A mutant allele, designed HrCYC2c-m, shows a thymine to adenine transversion, which generates a TGA stop codon after a translation of 14 amino acids. We established homozygous dominant (HrCYC2c/HrCYC2c) and recessive (HrCYC2c-m/HrCYC2c-m) plants for this nonsense mutation. Inflorescences of both HrCYC2c/HrCYC2c and HrCYC2c/HrCYC2c-m plants initiated ray flowers, despite at low frequency. By contrast, plants homozygous for the mutant allele (HrCYC2c-m/HrCYC2c-m) failed at all to develop ray flowers. The results support, for the first time, a role of the HrCYC2c gene on the initiation of ray flower primordia. However, also in the two dominant phenotypes, discoid heads are the prevalent architecture suggesting that this gene is required but not sufficient to initiate ray flowers in pseudanthia. Other unknown major genes are most likely required in the shift from discoid to radiate inflorescence.

Ray flower initiation in the Helianthus radula inflorescence is influenced by a functional allele of the HrCYC2c gene

Fambrini M.;Bernardi R.;Pugliesi C.
2020-01-01

Abstract

The radiate pseudanthium, with actinomorphic disk flowers surrounded by showy marginal zygomorphic ray flowers, is the most common inflorescence in the Helianthus genus. In Helianthus radula, ray flower primordia are normally absent at the dorsal domain of the inner phyllaries (discoid heads) while the occurrence of radiate inflorescences is uncommon. In Helianthus spp., flower symmetry and inflorescence architecture are mainly controlled by CYCLOIDEA (CYC)-like genes but the putative role of these genes in the development of discoid inflorescences has not been investigate. Three CYC genes of H. radula with a role in ray flower identity (HrCYC2c, HrCYC2d, and HrCYC2e) were isolated. The phylogenetic analysis placed these genes within the CYC2 subclade. We identified two different alleles for the HrCYC2c gene. A mutant allele, designed HrCYC2c-m, shows a thymine to adenine transversion, which generates a TGA stop codon after a translation of 14 amino acids. We established homozygous dominant (HrCYC2c/HrCYC2c) and recessive (HrCYC2c-m/HrCYC2c-m) plants for this nonsense mutation. Inflorescences of both HrCYC2c/HrCYC2c and HrCYC2c/HrCYC2c-m plants initiated ray flowers, despite at low frequency. By contrast, plants homozygous for the mutant allele (HrCYC2c-m/HrCYC2c-m) failed at all to develop ray flowers. The results support, for the first time, a role of the HrCYC2c gene on the initiation of ray flower primordia. However, also in the two dominant phenotypes, discoid heads are the prevalent architecture suggesting that this gene is required but not sufficient to initiate ray flowers in pseudanthia. Other unknown major genes are most likely required in the shift from discoid to radiate inflorescence.
2020
Fambrini, M.; Bernardi, R.; Pugliesi, C.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1075057
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