The endothelium plays a crucial role in modulating vascular function and structure. In healthy conditions, nitric oxide produced by endothelial cells exerts not only vasodilating properties, but also several other protective actions toward the vessel wall against the development of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors are characterized by endothelial dysfunction caused by an enhanced production of oxidative stress leading to destroy nitric oxide, thus reducing its availability. Abdominal obesity is associated with endothelial dysfunction, through direct mechanisms, such as insulin resistance and the association with risk factors (including diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia), and direct, by the production of adipokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines, which in turn induce oxidative stress leading to a reduced nitric oxide availability. A reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation is a predictor of cardiovascular events in high-risk patients and represents a putative clinical parameter to stratify the cardiovascular risk and a useful marker for therapy efficacy. Weight loss and a modification of lifestyle ameliorate endothelial function in obese patients, an effect due not only to a better glycemic profile, but also secondary to reduced plasma levels of inflammatory markers and adipokines. At present, whether an improvement of endothelial dysfunction secondary to weight loss is significantly associated with a better cardiovascular prognosis is still unknown.
|Autori:||Taddei S; Ghiadoni L; Salvetti G; Virdis A; Salvetti A.|
|Titolo:||Obesity and endothelial dysfunction.|
|Anno del prodotto:||2006|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|