Over recent years, several investigations have suggested that Parkinson’s disease (PD) can be regarded as the consequence of a bowel disorder. Indeed, gastrointestinal symptoms can occur at all stages of this neurodegenerative disease and in up to a third of cases, their onset can precede the involvement of the central nervous system. Recent data suggest that enteric glial cells (EGCs) may play a major role in PD-related gastrointestinal disturbances, as well as in the development and progression of the central disease. In addition to their trophic and structural functions, EGCs are crucial for the homeostatic control of a wide range of gastrointestinal activities. The main purpose of this review was to provide a detailed overview of the role of EGCs in intestinal PD-associated alterations, with particular regard for their participation in digestive and central inflammation as well as the dynamic interactions between glial cells and intestinal epithelial barrier. Accumulating evidence suggests that several pathological intestinal conditions, associated with an impairment of barrier permeability, may trigger dysfunctions of EGCs and their shift towards a proinflammatory phenotype. The reactive gliosis is likely responsible for PD-related neuroinflammation and the associated pathological changes in the ENS. Thus, ameliorating the efficiency of mucosal barrier, as well as avoiding IEB disruption and the related reactive gliosis, might theoretically prevent the onset of PD or, at least, counteract its progression.

Enteric glia at the crossroads between intestinal immune system and epithelial barrier: Implications for parkinson disease

Benvenuti L.;D'antongiovanni V.;Pellegrini C.;Antonioli L.
;
Bernardini N.;Blandizzi C.;Fornai M.
2020-01-01

Abstract

Over recent years, several investigations have suggested that Parkinson’s disease (PD) can be regarded as the consequence of a bowel disorder. Indeed, gastrointestinal symptoms can occur at all stages of this neurodegenerative disease and in up to a third of cases, their onset can precede the involvement of the central nervous system. Recent data suggest that enteric glial cells (EGCs) may play a major role in PD-related gastrointestinal disturbances, as well as in the development and progression of the central disease. In addition to their trophic and structural functions, EGCs are crucial for the homeostatic control of a wide range of gastrointestinal activities. The main purpose of this review was to provide a detailed overview of the role of EGCs in intestinal PD-associated alterations, with particular regard for their participation in digestive and central inflammation as well as the dynamic interactions between glial cells and intestinal epithelial barrier. Accumulating evidence suggests that several pathological intestinal conditions, associated with an impairment of barrier permeability, may trigger dysfunctions of EGCs and their shift towards a proinflammatory phenotype. The reactive gliosis is likely responsible for PD-related neuroinflammation and the associated pathological changes in the ENS. Thus, ameliorating the efficiency of mucosal barrier, as well as avoiding IEB disruption and the related reactive gliosis, might theoretically prevent the onset of PD or, at least, counteract its progression.
2020
Benvenuti, L.; D'Antongiovanni, V.; Pellegrini, C.; Antonioli, L.; Bernardini, N.; Blandizzi, C.; Fornai, M.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1078523
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