Background and aims: The reduced action of incretin hormones in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is mainly attributed to GIP insensitivity, but efficacy estimates of GIP and GLP-1 differ among studies, and the negligible effects of pharmacological GIP doses remain unexplained. We aimed to characterize incretin action in vivo in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or T2D and provide an explanation for the different insulinotropic activity of GIP and GLP-1 in T2D subjects. Methods: We used in vivo data from ten studies employing hormone infusion or an oral glucose test (OGTT). To homogeneously interpret and compare the results of the studies we performed the analysis using a mathematical model of the β-cell incorporating the effects of incretins on the triggering and amplifying pathways. The effect on the amplifying pathway was quantified by a time-dependent factor that is greater than one when insulin secretion (ISR) is amplified by incretins. To validate the model results for GIP in NGT subjects, we performed an extensive literature search of the available data. Results: a) the stimulatory effects of GIP and GLP-1 differ markedly: ISR potentiation increases linearly with GLP-1 over the whole dose range, while with GIP infusion it reaches a plateau at ~100 pmol/L GIP, with ISR potentiation of ~2 fold; b) ISR potentiation in T2D is reduced by ~50% for GIP and by ~40% for GLP-1; c) the literature search of GIP in NGT subjects confirmed the saturative effect on insulin secretion. Conclusion: We show that incretin potentiation of ISR is reduced in T2D, but not abolished, and that the lack of effects of pharmacological GIP doses is due to saturation of the GIP effect more than insensitivity to GIP in T2D.

Different mechanisms of GIP and GLP-1 action explain their different therapeutic efficacy in type 2 diabetes

Natali A.;Ferrannini E.;
2021-01-01

Abstract

Background and aims: The reduced action of incretin hormones in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is mainly attributed to GIP insensitivity, but efficacy estimates of GIP and GLP-1 differ among studies, and the negligible effects of pharmacological GIP doses remain unexplained. We aimed to characterize incretin action in vivo in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or T2D and provide an explanation for the different insulinotropic activity of GIP and GLP-1 in T2D subjects. Methods: We used in vivo data from ten studies employing hormone infusion or an oral glucose test (OGTT). To homogeneously interpret and compare the results of the studies we performed the analysis using a mathematical model of the β-cell incorporating the effects of incretins on the triggering and amplifying pathways. The effect on the amplifying pathway was quantified by a time-dependent factor that is greater than one when insulin secretion (ISR) is amplified by incretins. To validate the model results for GIP in NGT subjects, we performed an extensive literature search of the available data. Results: a) the stimulatory effects of GIP and GLP-1 differ markedly: ISR potentiation increases linearly with GLP-1 over the whole dose range, while with GIP infusion it reaches a plateau at ~100 pmol/L GIP, with ISR potentiation of ~2 fold; b) ISR potentiation in T2D is reduced by ~50% for GIP and by ~40% for GLP-1; c) the literature search of GIP in NGT subjects confirmed the saturative effect on insulin secretion. Conclusion: We show that incretin potentiation of ISR is reduced in T2D, but not abolished, and that the lack of effects of pharmacological GIP doses is due to saturation of the GIP effect more than insensitivity to GIP in T2D.
2021
Grespan, E.; Giorgino, T.; Natali, A.; Ferrannini, E.; Mari, A.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1078928
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