5'-Amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide (AICA) riboside induces apoptosis in neuronal cell models. In order to exert its effect, AICA riboside must enter the cell and be phosphorylated to the ribotide. In the present work, we have further studied the mechanism of apoptosis induced by AICA riboside. The results demonstrate that AICA riboside activates AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK), induces release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and activation of caspase 9. The role of AMPK in determining cell fate is controversial. In fact, AICA riboside has been reported to be neuroprotective or to induce apoptosis depending on its concentration, cell type or apoptotic stimuli used. In order to clarify whether the activation of AMPK is related to apoptosis in our model, we have used another AMPK stimulator, metformin, and we have analysed its effects on cell viability, nuclear morphology and AMPK activity. Five mM metformin increased AMPK activity, inhibited viability, and increased the number of apoptotic nuclei. AICA riboside, which can be generated from the ribotide (an intermediate of the purine de novo synthesis) by the action of the ubiquitous cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase (cN-II), may accumulate in those individuals in which an inborn error of purine metabolism causes both a building up of intermediates and/or an increase of the rate of de novo synthesis, and/or an overexpression of cN-II. Therefore, our results suggest that the toxic effect of AICA riboside on some types of neurons may participate in the neurological manifestations of syndromes related to purine dismetabolisms.
|Autori:||GARCIA-GIL M; BERTINI F; PESI R; VOCCOLI V; TOZZI M.G; CAMICI M|
|Titolo:||5’-Amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide riboside induces apoptosis in human neuroblastoma cells via the mitochondrial pathway|
|Anno del prodotto:||2006|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1080/15257770600890905|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|