Periodontal diseases are considered not only to affect tooth-supporting tissues but also to have a cause-and-effect relationship with various systemic diseases and conditions, such as adverse pregnancy outcomes. Mechanistic studies provide strong evidence that periodontal pathogens can translocate from infected periodontium to the feto-placental unit and initiate a metastatic infection. However, the extent and mechanisms by which metastatic inflammation and injury contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes still remain unclear. The presence of oral bacteria in the placenta of women with term gestation further complicates our understanding of the biology behind the role of periodontal pathogens in pregnancy outcomes. Epidemiological studies demonstrate many methodological inconsistencies and flaws that render comparisons difficult and conclusions insecure. Therefore, despite the fact that a number of prospective studies show a positive association between periodontal diseases and various adverse pregnancy outcomes, the evidence behind it is still weak. Future well-designed explanatory studies are necessary to verify this relationship and, if present, determine its magnitude. The majority of high-quality randomized controlled trials reveal that nonsurgical periodontal therapy during the second trimester of gestation does not improve pregnancy outcomes. From a biological standpoint, this can be partially explained by the fact that therapy rendered at the fourth to sixth months of pregnancy is too late to prevent placental colonization by periodontal pathogens and consequently incapable of affecting pathogen-induced injury at the feto-placental unit. Thus, interventions during the preconception period may be more meaningful. With the increase in our understanding on the potential association between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes, it is clear that dental practitioners should provide periodontal treatment to pregnant women that is safe for both the mother and the unborn child. Although there is not enough evidence that the anti-infective therapy alters pregnancy outcomes, it improves health-promoting behavior and periodontal condition, which in turn advance general health and risk factor control.

Periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes

Graziani F.;
2020-01-01

Abstract

Periodontal diseases are considered not only to affect tooth-supporting tissues but also to have a cause-and-effect relationship with various systemic diseases and conditions, such as adverse pregnancy outcomes. Mechanistic studies provide strong evidence that periodontal pathogens can translocate from infected periodontium to the feto-placental unit and initiate a metastatic infection. However, the extent and mechanisms by which metastatic inflammation and injury contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes still remain unclear. The presence of oral bacteria in the placenta of women with term gestation further complicates our understanding of the biology behind the role of periodontal pathogens in pregnancy outcomes. Epidemiological studies demonstrate many methodological inconsistencies and flaws that render comparisons difficult and conclusions insecure. Therefore, despite the fact that a number of prospective studies show a positive association between periodontal diseases and various adverse pregnancy outcomes, the evidence behind it is still weak. Future well-designed explanatory studies are necessary to verify this relationship and, if present, determine its magnitude. The majority of high-quality randomized controlled trials reveal that nonsurgical periodontal therapy during the second trimester of gestation does not improve pregnancy outcomes. From a biological standpoint, this can be partially explained by the fact that therapy rendered at the fourth to sixth months of pregnancy is too late to prevent placental colonization by periodontal pathogens and consequently incapable of affecting pathogen-induced injury at the feto-placental unit. Thus, interventions during the preconception period may be more meaningful. With the increase in our understanding on the potential association between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes, it is clear that dental practitioners should provide periodontal treatment to pregnant women that is safe for both the mother and the unborn child. Although there is not enough evidence that the anti-infective therapy alters pregnancy outcomes, it improves health-promoting behavior and periodontal condition, which in turn advance general health and risk factor control.
2020
Bobetsis, Y. A.; Graziani, F.; Gursoy, M.; Madianos, P. N.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1081423
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