Lipodystrophy syndromes are rare, heterogeneous disorders characterized by the complete or partial deficiency of adipose tissue and are classified according to the extent of fat loss in generalized or partial subtypes, or based on the pathogenic mechanisms in genetic or acquired. While in most cases of congenital forms of lipodystrophy a genetic alteration can be identified, the pathogenic mechanisms responsible for the acquired diseases are not fully clarified. Based on the evidence of a positive association between most acquired lipodystrophies and autoimmune disorders including immune mediated alterations in the adipose tissue of patients affected by acquired lipodystrophy, a reaction against white adipose tissue antigens is postulated. Recent acquisitions have shed new light on the possible pathogenic mechanisms and identified novel forms of acquired lipodystrophy which are possibly immune-mediated. The aim of this review is to give an update on acquired lipodystrophies describing pathogenic mechanisms involved and the relationships between acquired lipodystrophies and other autoimmune disorders. Larger studies based on international disease registries are needed to collect accurate information on the prevalence, risk factors, genetic predisposition, natural history, disease markers and treatment efficacy of these ultrarare disorders.

Autoimmunity in lipodystrophy syndromes

Ceccarini G.
;
Magno S.;Gilio D.;Pelosini C.;Santini F.
2021-01-01

Abstract

Lipodystrophy syndromes are rare, heterogeneous disorders characterized by the complete or partial deficiency of adipose tissue and are classified according to the extent of fat loss in generalized or partial subtypes, or based on the pathogenic mechanisms in genetic or acquired. While in most cases of congenital forms of lipodystrophy a genetic alteration can be identified, the pathogenic mechanisms responsible for the acquired diseases are not fully clarified. Based on the evidence of a positive association between most acquired lipodystrophies and autoimmune disorders including immune mediated alterations in the adipose tissue of patients affected by acquired lipodystrophy, a reaction against white adipose tissue antigens is postulated. Recent acquisitions have shed new light on the possible pathogenic mechanisms and identified novel forms of acquired lipodystrophy which are possibly immune-mediated. The aim of this review is to give an update on acquired lipodystrophies describing pathogenic mechanisms involved and the relationships between acquired lipodystrophies and other autoimmune disorders. Larger studies based on international disease registries are needed to collect accurate information on the prevalence, risk factors, genetic predisposition, natural history, disease markers and treatment efficacy of these ultrarare disorders.
2021
Ceccarini, G.; Magno, S.; Gilio, D.; Pelosini, C.; Santini, F.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1113336
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