Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9) increases LDL cholesterol (C) concentration by accelerating the hepatic degradation of the LDL receptor (R) thus promoting atherogenesis. The molecule, however, also exerts proinflammatory effects independent of circulating LDL-C by enhancing local cytokine production and activation of NFkB, a process that might involve Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a crucial component of the innate immunity system. Tissue factor (TF), a glycopro-tein which plays an essential role in coagulation and inflammation, is rapidly induced by circulating monocytes stimulated by proinflammatory agents through NFkB-dependent mechanisms. The aims of our study were (1) to assess whether PCSK9 may induce monocytic TF expression and (2) to evaluate whether the TLR4/NFkB signaling pathway may contribute to that effect. Experiments were carried out in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), THP-1 cells, and HEK293 cells transfected with plasmids encoding the human TLR4 complex. PCSK9 increased procoagulant activity (PCA), mRNA and TF protein expression in both PBMCs and THP-1 cultures. Pre-treatment with inhibitors of TLR4/NFkB signaling such as LPS-RS, CLI-095, and BAY 11-7082, downregulated PCSK9-induced TF expression. A similar effect was obtained by incubating cell cultures with anti-PCSK9 human monoclonal antibody. In TLR4-HEK293 cells, PCSK9 activated the TLR4/NFkB signaling pathway to an extent comparable to LPS, the specific agonist of TLR4s and quantitative confocal microscopy documented the colocalization of PCSK9 and TLR4s. In conclusion, PCSK9 induces TF expression through activation of TLR4/NFkB signaling.

Pcsk9 induces tissue factor expression by activation of tlr4/nfkb signaling

Scalise V.;Sanguinetti C.;Neri T.;Cianchetti S.;Lai M.;Carnicelli V.;Celi A.;Pedrinelli R.
2021-01-01

Abstract

Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 (PCSK9) increases LDL cholesterol (C) concentration by accelerating the hepatic degradation of the LDL receptor (R) thus promoting atherogenesis. The molecule, however, also exerts proinflammatory effects independent of circulating LDL-C by enhancing local cytokine production and activation of NFkB, a process that might involve Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a crucial component of the innate immunity system. Tissue factor (TF), a glycopro-tein which plays an essential role in coagulation and inflammation, is rapidly induced by circulating monocytes stimulated by proinflammatory agents through NFkB-dependent mechanisms. The aims of our study were (1) to assess whether PCSK9 may induce monocytic TF expression and (2) to evaluate whether the TLR4/NFkB signaling pathway may contribute to that effect. Experiments were carried out in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), THP-1 cells, and HEK293 cells transfected with plasmids encoding the human TLR4 complex. PCSK9 increased procoagulant activity (PCA), mRNA and TF protein expression in both PBMCs and THP-1 cultures. Pre-treatment with inhibitors of TLR4/NFkB signaling such as LPS-RS, CLI-095, and BAY 11-7082, downregulated PCSK9-induced TF expression. A similar effect was obtained by incubating cell cultures with anti-PCSK9 human monoclonal antibody. In TLR4-HEK293 cells, PCSK9 activated the TLR4/NFkB signaling pathway to an extent comparable to LPS, the specific agonist of TLR4s and quantitative confocal microscopy documented the colocalization of PCSK9 and TLR4s. In conclusion, PCSK9 induces TF expression through activation of TLR4/NFkB signaling.
Scalise, V.; Sanguinetti, C.; Neri, T.; Cianchetti, S.; Lai, M.; Carnicelli, V.; Celi, A.; Pedrinelli, R.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1121206
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 10
  • Scopus 12
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 11
social impact