Introduction: The most common altered signaling found in aggressive iodine-refractory thyroid cancers derived from follicular cells (RAI-TC) are RTK, MAPK, PI3K, WNT, BRAF, RAS, RET, and TP53. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKI) are multi-kinase inhibitors able to act against different pathways, that elicit an anti-neoplastic activity. Areas covered: The aim of this paper is to review recent novel molecular therapies of RAI-TC. Recently, sorafenib and lenvatinib, have been approved for the treatment of aggressive RAI-TC. Other studies are evaluating vandetanib and selumetinib in RAI-TC. Furthermore, preliminary studies have evaluated dabrafenib, and vemurafenib in BRAF mutated RAI-TC patients to re-induce 131-iodine uptake. The interplay between cells of the immune system and cancer cells can be altered by immune checkpoints inhibitors. The expression of PDL1 in RAI-TC was related to tumor recurrence and poor survival. Several clinical trials are investigating a combination of different therapies, such as lenvatinib and pembrolizumab. Expert opinion: Mechanisms of resistance to TKIs inhibitors can be of intrinsic or acquired origin. An acquired resistance to lenvatinib, or sorafenib can be due to upregulation of FGFR; therefore, anti-FGFR agents are evaluated. A new strategy is to combine TKIs with immunotherapy. Several studies are evaluating lenvatinib and pembrolizumab in RAI-TC patients.

Advances in pharmacotherapy for advanced thyroid cancer of follicular origin (PTC, FTC). New approved drugs and future therapies

Elia, Giusy;Ferrari, Silvia Martina;Ragusa, Francesca;Paparo, Sabrina Rosaria;Mazzi, Valeria;Antonelli, Alessandro;Fallahi, Poupak
2022-01-01

Abstract

Introduction: The most common altered signaling found in aggressive iodine-refractory thyroid cancers derived from follicular cells (RAI-TC) are RTK, MAPK, PI3K, WNT, BRAF, RAS, RET, and TP53. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKI) are multi-kinase inhibitors able to act against different pathways, that elicit an anti-neoplastic activity. Areas covered: The aim of this paper is to review recent novel molecular therapies of RAI-TC. Recently, sorafenib and lenvatinib, have been approved for the treatment of aggressive RAI-TC. Other studies are evaluating vandetanib and selumetinib in RAI-TC. Furthermore, preliminary studies have evaluated dabrafenib, and vemurafenib in BRAF mutated RAI-TC patients to re-induce 131-iodine uptake. The interplay between cells of the immune system and cancer cells can be altered by immune checkpoints inhibitors. The expression of PDL1 in RAI-TC was related to tumor recurrence and poor survival. Several clinical trials are investigating a combination of different therapies, such as lenvatinib and pembrolizumab. Expert opinion: Mechanisms of resistance to TKIs inhibitors can be of intrinsic or acquired origin. An acquired resistance to lenvatinib, or sorafenib can be due to upregulation of FGFR; therefore, anti-FGFR agents are evaluated. A new strategy is to combine TKIs with immunotherapy. Several studies are evaluating lenvatinib and pembrolizumab in RAI-TC patients.
Elia, Giusy; Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Ragusa, Francesca; Paparo, Sabrina Rosaria; Mazzi, Valeria; Ulisse, Salvatore; Benvenga, Salvatore; Antonelli, Alessandro; Fallahi, Poupak
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1126419
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