Objectives Long bone variations during growth are susceptible to the combined action of nutritional, hormonal, and genetic factors that may modulate the mechanical forces acting upon growing individuals as they progressively acquire a mature gait. In this work, we explore diaphyseal length and breadth variations of tibia and fibula during ontogeny (a) to test the presence of changes in relation to early toddling, and (b) to further our understanding of developmental patterns in relation to sex. Materials and Methods Lengths, breadths, and indices were analyzed on right and left leg bones of 68 subadult individuals (Human Identified Skeletal Collection of the University of Bologna, Italy). Analyses included intersex and age classes (1, 0-1 year; 2, 1.1-3 years; 3, 3.1-6 years) comparisons, linear regressions with age and assessment of correlation among tibial and fibular measurements, as well as principal component analysis. Results A significant difference emerged among age class 1 and the others. Age class 1 and 3 differ between them, while age class 2 overlaps with the others. No sex dimorphism was detected. All measurements were strongly correlated with age. Tibial and fibular measurements correlated with each other. Conclusions Our results relate the progressive emergence of toddling attempts in growing individuals at the end of the first year of age. No significant sex differences were found, suggesting that tibial and fibula growth might diverge between sexes in later childhood. We provide quantitative data regarding tibial and fibular linear growth and its timing in a modern documented osteological sample from Italy.

The relationship between bipedalism and growth: A metric assessment in a documented modern skeletal collection (Certosa Collection, Bologna, Italy)

Marchi, D
Ultimo
;
2022

Abstract

Objectives Long bone variations during growth are susceptible to the combined action of nutritional, hormonal, and genetic factors that may modulate the mechanical forces acting upon growing individuals as they progressively acquire a mature gait. In this work, we explore diaphyseal length and breadth variations of tibia and fibula during ontogeny (a) to test the presence of changes in relation to early toddling, and (b) to further our understanding of developmental patterns in relation to sex. Materials and Methods Lengths, breadths, and indices were analyzed on right and left leg bones of 68 subadult individuals (Human Identified Skeletal Collection of the University of Bologna, Italy). Analyses included intersex and age classes (1, 0-1 year; 2, 1.1-3 years; 3, 3.1-6 years) comparisons, linear regressions with age and assessment of correlation among tibial and fibular measurements, as well as principal component analysis. Results A significant difference emerged among age class 1 and the others. Age class 1 and 3 differ between them, while age class 2 overlaps with the others. No sex dimorphism was detected. All measurements were strongly correlated with age. Tibial and fibular measurements correlated with each other. Conclusions Our results relate the progressive emergence of toddling attempts in growing individuals at the end of the first year of age. No significant sex differences were found, suggesting that tibial and fibula growth might diverge between sexes in later childhood. We provide quantitative data regarding tibial and fibular linear growth and its timing in a modern documented osteological sample from Italy.
Pietrobelli, A; Marchi, D; Belcastro, Mg
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11568/1142320
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