The challenging severity of some infections, especially in critically ill patients, makes the diffusion of antimicrobial drugs within tissues one of the cornerstones of chemotherapy. The knowledge of how antibacterial agents penetrate tissues may come from different sources: preclin- ical studies in animal models, phase I–III clinical trials and post-registration studies. However, the particular physiopathology of critically ill patients may significantly alter drug pharmacokinetics. Indeed, changes in interstitial volumes (the third space) and/or in glomerular filtration ratio may influence the achievement of bactericidal concentrations in peripheral compartments, while inflam- mation can alter the systemic distribution of some drugs. On the contrary, other antibacterial agents may reach high and effective concentrations thanks to the increased tissue accumulation of macro- phages and neutrophils. Therefore, the present review explores the tissue distribution of beta-lac- tams and other antimicrobials acting on the cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria in crit- ically ill patients. A systematic search of articles was performed according to PRISMA guidelines, and tissue/plasma penetration ratios were collected. Results showed a highly variable passage of drugs within tissues, while large interindividual variability may represent a hurdle which must be overcome to achieve therapeutic concentrations in some compartments. To solve that issue, off-label dosing regimens could represent an effective solution in particular conditions.

Tissue Penetration of Antimicrobials in Intensive Care Unit Patients: A Systematic Review—Part I

Giacomo Luci
Data Curation
;
Antonello Di Paolo
2022

Abstract

The challenging severity of some infections, especially in critically ill patients, makes the diffusion of antimicrobial drugs within tissues one of the cornerstones of chemotherapy. The knowledge of how antibacterial agents penetrate tissues may come from different sources: preclin- ical studies in animal models, phase I–III clinical trials and post-registration studies. However, the particular physiopathology of critically ill patients may significantly alter drug pharmacokinetics. Indeed, changes in interstitial volumes (the third space) and/or in glomerular filtration ratio may influence the achievement of bactericidal concentrations in peripheral compartments, while inflam- mation can alter the systemic distribution of some drugs. On the contrary, other antibacterial agents may reach high and effective concentrations thanks to the increased tissue accumulation of macro- phages and neutrophils. Therefore, the present review explores the tissue distribution of beta-lac- tams and other antimicrobials acting on the cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria in crit- ically ill patients. A systematic search of articles was performed according to PRISMA guidelines, and tissue/plasma penetration ratios were collected. Results showed a highly variable passage of drugs within tissues, while large interindividual variability may represent a hurdle which must be overcome to achieve therapeutic concentrations in some compartments. To solve that issue, off-label dosing regimens could represent an effective solution in particular conditions.
Finazzi, Stefano; Luci, Giacomo; Olivieri, Carlo; Langer, Martin; Mandelli, Giulia; Corona, Alberto; Viaggi, Bruno; DI PAOLO, Antonello
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1151099
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