Uric acid is the final product of purine catabolism in man and apes. The serum concentration of uric acid is sex-, age- and diet-dependent and is maintained close to its maximal solubility, indicating that it plays some important role. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that, at physiological concentrations, uric acid is a powerful antioxidant, while at high intracellular concentrations, it is a pro-oxidant molecule. In this review, we describe the possible causes of uric acid accumulation or depletion and some of the metabolic and regulatory pathways it may impact. Particular attention has been given to fructose, which, because of the complex correlation between carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism, causes uric acid accumulation. We also present recent results on the positive and negative effects played by uric acid in cancer and some new findings and hypotheses about the implication of this metabolite in a variety of signaling pathways, which can play a role in the pathogenesis of diseases such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and inflammation, thus favoring the development of cancer. The loss of uricase in Homo sapiens and great apes, although exposing these species to the potentially adverse effects of uric acid, appears to be associated with evolutionary advantages.

The Good, the Bad and the New about Uric Acid in Cancer

Allegrini, Simone
;
Pesi, Rossana
Secondo
;
Tozzi, Maria Grazia
Ultimo
2022-01-01

Abstract

Uric acid is the final product of purine catabolism in man and apes. The serum concentration of uric acid is sex-, age- and diet-dependent and is maintained close to its maximal solubility, indicating that it plays some important role. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that, at physiological concentrations, uric acid is a powerful antioxidant, while at high intracellular concentrations, it is a pro-oxidant molecule. In this review, we describe the possible causes of uric acid accumulation or depletion and some of the metabolic and regulatory pathways it may impact. Particular attention has been given to fructose, which, because of the complex correlation between carbohydrate and nucleotide metabolism, causes uric acid accumulation. We also present recent results on the positive and negative effects played by uric acid in cancer and some new findings and hypotheses about the implication of this metabolite in a variety of signaling pathways, which can play a role in the pathogenesis of diseases such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and inflammation, thus favoring the development of cancer. The loss of uricase in Homo sapiens and great apes, although exposing these species to the potentially adverse effects of uric acid, appears to be associated with evolutionary advantages.
2022
Allegrini, Simone; Garcia-Gil, Mercedes; Pesi, Rossana; Camici, Marcella; Tozzi, Maria Grazia
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1153951
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