Background The mechanism through which sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) prevent the incidence of heart failure and/or affect cardiac structure and function remains unclear. Methods The EMPA-HEART trial is aimed at verifying whether empagliflozin improves myocardial contractility (left ventricle global longitudinal strain, LV-GLS) and/or cardiopulmonary fitness (peak oxygen uptake, VO2peak) in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) without heart disease. Patients with T2D, normal LV systolic function (2D-Echo EF > 50%), and no heart disease were randomized to either empagliflozin 10 mg or sitagliptin 100 mg for 6 months and underwent repeated cardiopulmonary exercise tests with echocardiography and determination of plasma biomarkers. Results Forty-four patients completed the study, 22 per arm. Despite comparable glycaemic control, modest reductions in body weight (- 1.6; [- 2.7/- 0.5] kg, p = 0.03) and plasma uric acid (- 1.5; [- 2.3/- 0.6], p = 0.002), as well as an increase in haemoglobin (+ 0.7; [+ 0.2/+ 1.1] g/dL, p = 0.0003) were evident with empagliflozin. No difference was detectable in either LV-GLS at 1 month (empagliflozin vs sitagliptin: + 0.44; [- 0.10/+ 0.98]%, p = 0.11) and 6 months of therapy (+ 0.53; [- 0.56/+ 1.62]%), or in VO2peak (+ 0.43; [- 1.4/+ 2.3] mL/min/kg, p = 0.65). With empagliflozin, the subgroup with baseline LV-GLS below the median experienced a greater increase (time*drug p < 0.05) in LV-GLS at 1 month (+ 1.22; [+ 0.31/+ 2.13]%) and 6 months (+ 2.05; [+ 1.14/+ 2.96]%), while sitagliptin induced a modest improvement in LV-GLS only at 6 months (+ 0.92; [+ 0.21/+ 0.62]%). Conclusions Empagliflozin has neutral impact on both LV-GLS and exercise tolerance in subjects with T2D and normal left ventricular function. However, in patients with subclinical dysfunction (LV-GLS < 16.5%) it produces a rapid and sustained amelioration of LV contractility. Trial registration EUDRACT Code 2016-002225-10

Effect of empagliflozin on left ventricular contractility and peak oxygen uptake in subjects with type 2 diabetes without heart disease: results of the EMPA-HEART trial

Nesti, Lorenzo;Pugliese, Nicola Riccardo;Trico, Domenico;Dardano, Angela;Baldi, Simona;Pinnola, Silvia;Fabiani, Iacopo;Di Bello, Vitantonio;Natali, Andrea
2022-01-01

Abstract

Background The mechanism through which sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) prevent the incidence of heart failure and/or affect cardiac structure and function remains unclear. Methods The EMPA-HEART trial is aimed at verifying whether empagliflozin improves myocardial contractility (left ventricle global longitudinal strain, LV-GLS) and/or cardiopulmonary fitness (peak oxygen uptake, VO2peak) in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) without heart disease. Patients with T2D, normal LV systolic function (2D-Echo EF > 50%), and no heart disease were randomized to either empagliflozin 10 mg or sitagliptin 100 mg for 6 months and underwent repeated cardiopulmonary exercise tests with echocardiography and determination of plasma biomarkers. Results Forty-four patients completed the study, 22 per arm. Despite comparable glycaemic control, modest reductions in body weight (- 1.6; [- 2.7/- 0.5] kg, p = 0.03) and plasma uric acid (- 1.5; [- 2.3/- 0.6], p = 0.002), as well as an increase in haemoglobin (+ 0.7; [+ 0.2/+ 1.1] g/dL, p = 0.0003) were evident with empagliflozin. No difference was detectable in either LV-GLS at 1 month (empagliflozin vs sitagliptin: + 0.44; [- 0.10/+ 0.98]%, p = 0.11) and 6 months of therapy (+ 0.53; [- 0.56/+ 1.62]%), or in VO2peak (+ 0.43; [- 1.4/+ 2.3] mL/min/kg, p = 0.65). With empagliflozin, the subgroup with baseline LV-GLS below the median experienced a greater increase (time*drug p < 0.05) in LV-GLS at 1 month (+ 1.22; [+ 0.31/+ 2.13]%) and 6 months (+ 2.05; [+ 1.14/+ 2.96]%), while sitagliptin induced a modest improvement in LV-GLS only at 6 months (+ 0.92; [+ 0.21/+ 0.62]%). Conclusions Empagliflozin has neutral impact on both LV-GLS and exercise tolerance in subjects with T2D and normal left ventricular function. However, in patients with subclinical dysfunction (LV-GLS < 16.5%) it produces a rapid and sustained amelioration of LV contractility. Trial registration EUDRACT Code 2016-002225-10
Nesti, Lorenzo; Pugliese, Nicola Riccardo; Sciuto, Paolo; Trico, Domenico; Dardano, Angela; Baldi, Simona; Pinnola, Silvia; Fabiani, Iacopo; Di Bello, Vitantonio; Natali, Andrea
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1155340
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