Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) is involved in the progression of atherosclerosis, since its enzymatic activity promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Besides, GGT may act as a prothrombotic factor by inducing tissue factor (TF) expression, independently of its enzymatic activity. The aim of this study was to assess whether GGT-induced TF stimulation was a consequence of binding to toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expressed on monocytes, the precursors of macrophages and foam cells which colocalize with GGT activity within atherosclerotic plaques. Experiments were performed in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), THP-1 cells (a monocytic cellular model), and HEK293 cells, which were genetically modified to study the activation of TLR4. TF procoagulant activity was assessed by a one-stage clotting time test, and TF protein expression was estimated by western blot. Human recombinant (hr) GGT protein increased TF procoagulant activity and protein expression in both PBMCs and THP-1 cells. The GGT-induced TF stimulation was prevented by cellular pretreatment with TLR4/NF-κB inhibitors (LPS-Rs, CLI-095, and BAY-11-7082), and HEK293 cells lacking TLR4 confirmed that TLR4 is essential for GGT-induced activation of NF-κB. In conclusion, hrGGT induced TF expression in monocytes through a cytokine-like mechanism that involved the activation of TLR4/NF-κB signaling.

Binding of Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase to TLR4 Signalling Allows Tissue Factor Activation in Monocytes

Sanguinetti, Chiara
Primo
;
Scalise, Valentina
Secondo
;
Neri, Tommaso;Celi, Alessandro;Susini, Vanessa;Franzini, Maria
Penultimo
;
Pedrinelli, Roberto
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) is involved in the progression of atherosclerosis, since its enzymatic activity promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Besides, GGT may act as a prothrombotic factor by inducing tissue factor (TF) expression, independently of its enzymatic activity. The aim of this study was to assess whether GGT-induced TF stimulation was a consequence of binding to toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expressed on monocytes, the precursors of macrophages and foam cells which colocalize with GGT activity within atherosclerotic plaques. Experiments were performed in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), THP-1 cells (a monocytic cellular model), and HEK293 cells, which were genetically modified to study the activation of TLR4. TF procoagulant activity was assessed by a one-stage clotting time test, and TF protein expression was estimated by western blot. Human recombinant (hr) GGT protein increased TF procoagulant activity and protein expression in both PBMCs and THP-1 cells. The GGT-induced TF stimulation was prevented by cellular pretreatment with TLR4/NF-κB inhibitors (LPS-Rs, CLI-095, and BAY-11-7082), and HEK293 cells lacking TLR4 confirmed that TLR4 is essential for GGT-induced activation of NF-κB. In conclusion, hrGGT induced TF expression in monocytes through a cytokine-like mechanism that involved the activation of TLR4/NF-κB signaling.
Sanguinetti, Chiara; Scalise, Valentina; Neri, Tommaso; Celi, Alessandro; Susini, Vanessa; Franzini, Maria; Pedrinelli, Roberto
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
2022 TF GGT ijms-23-12207.pdf

solo utenti autorizzati

Tipologia: Versione finale editoriale
Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 3.23 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
3.23 MB Adobe PDF   Visualizza/Apri   Richiedi una copia

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1155732
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus 0
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact