Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of maternal overweight on cardiac development in offspring in infants (short term) and minipigs (short and longer term). Background: The epidemic of overweight involves pregnant women. The uterine environment affects organ development, modulating disease susceptibility. Offspring of obese mothers have higher rates of cardiovascular events and mortality. Methods: Echocardiography was performed in infants born to lean and overweight mothers at birth and at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. In minipigs born to mothers fed a high-fat diet or a normal diet, cardiac development (echocardiography, histology), glucose metabolism and perfusion (positron emission tomography), triglyceride and glycogen content, and myocardial enzymes regulating metabolism (mass spectrometry) were determined from birth to adulthood. Results: In neonates, maternal overweight, especially in the last trimester, predicted a thicker left ventricular posterior wall at birth (4.1 ± 0.3 vs. 3.3 ± 0.2 mm; p < 0.05) and larger end-diastolic and stroke volumes at 1 year. Minipigs born to mothers fed a high-fat diet showed greater left ventricular mass (p = 0.0001), chambers (+100%; p < 0.001), stroke volume (+75%; p = 0.001), cardiomyocyte nuclei (+28%; p = 0.02), glucose uptake, and glycogen accumulation at birth (+100%; p < 0.005), with lower levels of oxidative enzymes, compared with those born to mothers fed a normal diet. Subsequently, they developed myocardial insulin resistance and glycogen depletion. Late adulthood showed elevated heart rate (111 ± 5 vs. 84 ± 8 beats/min; p < 0.05) and ejection fraction and deficient fatty acid oxidative enzymes. Conclusions: Neonatal changes in cardiac morphology were explained by late-trimester maternal body mass index; myocardial glucose overexposure seen in minipigs can justify early human findings. Longer term effects in minipigs consisted of myocardial insulin resistance, enzymatic alterations, and hyperdynamic systolic function.

Maternal Obesity and Cardiac Development in the Offspring: Study in Human Neonates and Minipigs

Gargani L.;D'Angelo G.;Burchielli S.;Sicari R.;
2018-01-01

Abstract

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of maternal overweight on cardiac development in offspring in infants (short term) and minipigs (short and longer term). Background: The epidemic of overweight involves pregnant women. The uterine environment affects organ development, modulating disease susceptibility. Offspring of obese mothers have higher rates of cardiovascular events and mortality. Methods: Echocardiography was performed in infants born to lean and overweight mothers at birth and at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. In minipigs born to mothers fed a high-fat diet or a normal diet, cardiac development (echocardiography, histology), glucose metabolism and perfusion (positron emission tomography), triglyceride and glycogen content, and myocardial enzymes regulating metabolism (mass spectrometry) were determined from birth to adulthood. Results: In neonates, maternal overweight, especially in the last trimester, predicted a thicker left ventricular posterior wall at birth (4.1 ± 0.3 vs. 3.3 ± 0.2 mm; p < 0.05) and larger end-diastolic and stroke volumes at 1 year. Minipigs born to mothers fed a high-fat diet showed greater left ventricular mass (p = 0.0001), chambers (+100%; p < 0.001), stroke volume (+75%; p = 0.001), cardiomyocyte nuclei (+28%; p = 0.02), glucose uptake, and glycogen accumulation at birth (+100%; p < 0.005), with lower levels of oxidative enzymes, compared with those born to mothers fed a normal diet. Subsequently, they developed myocardial insulin resistance and glycogen depletion. Late adulthood showed elevated heart rate (111 ± 5 vs. 84 ± 8 beats/min; p < 0.05) and ejection fraction and deficient fatty acid oxidative enzymes. Conclusions: Neonatal changes in cardiac morphology were explained by late-trimester maternal body mass index; myocardial glucose overexposure seen in minipigs can justify early human findings. Longer term effects in minipigs consisted of myocardial insulin resistance, enzymatic alterations, and hyperdynamic systolic function.
2018
Guzzardi, M. A.; Liistro, T.; Gargani, L.; Ait Ali, L.; D'Angelo, G.; Rocchiccioli, S.; La Rosa, F.; Kemeny, A.; Sanguinetti, E.; Ucciferri, N.; De Simone, M.; Bartoli, A.; Festa, P.; Salvadori, P. A.; Burchielli, S.; Sicari, R.; Iozzo, P.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1162123
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 26
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 24
social impact