We are facing an obesity epidemic, and obesity itself and its close companion, type 2 diabetes, are independent risk factors for neurodegeneration. While most medical treatments fail to induce a clinically meaningful improvement in neurodegenerative disorders, lifestyle interventions have emerged in the spotlight. A recently rediscovered approach is intermittent fasting (IF), which, compared to the classic caloric restriction regimens, limits only the time of eating, rather than the number of calories allowed per day. There is already a large amount of evidence from preclinical and clinical studies showing the beneficial effects of IF. In this review, we specifically focus on the effects of IF on brain metabolism. Key molecular players modified during IF and involved in its beneficial central effects (ketone bodies, BDNF, GABA, GH/IGF-1, FGF2, sirtuin-3, mTOR, and gut microbiota) are identified and discussed. Studies suggest that IF induces several molecular and cellular adaptations in neurons, which, overall, enhance cellular stress resistance, synaptic plasticity, and neurogenesis. Still, the absence of guidelines regarding the application of IF to patients hampers its broad utilization in clinical practice, and further studies are needed to improve our knowledge on the different IF protocols and long-term effects of IF on brain metabolism before it can be widely prescribed.

Effects of Intermittent Fasting on Brain Metabolism

Brocchi, Alex
Co-primo
;
Dardano, Angela;Mantuano, Michele;Daniele, Giuseppe
2022-01-01

Abstract

We are facing an obesity epidemic, and obesity itself and its close companion, type 2 diabetes, are independent risk factors for neurodegeneration. While most medical treatments fail to induce a clinically meaningful improvement in neurodegenerative disorders, lifestyle interventions have emerged in the spotlight. A recently rediscovered approach is intermittent fasting (IF), which, compared to the classic caloric restriction regimens, limits only the time of eating, rather than the number of calories allowed per day. There is already a large amount of evidence from preclinical and clinical studies showing the beneficial effects of IF. In this review, we specifically focus on the effects of IF on brain metabolism. Key molecular players modified during IF and involved in its beneficial central effects (ketone bodies, BDNF, GABA, GH/IGF-1, FGF2, sirtuin-3, mTOR, and gut microbiota) are identified and discussed. Studies suggest that IF induces several molecular and cellular adaptations in neurons, which, overall, enhance cellular stress resistance, synaptic plasticity, and neurogenesis. Still, the absence of guidelines regarding the application of IF to patients hampers its broad utilization in clinical practice, and further studies are needed to improve our knowledge on the different IF protocols and long-term effects of IF on brain metabolism before it can be widely prescribed.
Brocchi, Alex; Rebelos, Eleni; Dardano, Angela; Mantuano, Michele; Daniele, Giuseppe
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1162725
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