Background and Aim: Exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension (ExPH) predicts clinical outcomes, such as all-cause mortality and cardiovascular (CV) hospitalizations, in patients with dyspnea on effort. We investigated its prognostic significance in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-affected patients. Methods: In 52 consecutive HIV patients with either low (n = 47) or intermediate probability (n = 5) of PH at rest, we evaluated-at time 0 and after 2 years-the prognostic determinants of CV risk, according to the 2015 European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) Guidelines. Patients were classified with or without ExPH at stress echocardiography (ESE) and cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). We then related ExPH at time 0 with clinical worsening (CV risk score increase >20% after 2 years). Results: Right ventricle (RV) systolic function was significantly reduced in patients with ExPH compared to those without ExPH at CPET. This also occurred in patients with intermediate/high probability compared to those with low probability of ExPH at ESE. The former exhibited worse values of TAPSE and FAC (p < 0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively). A significantly higher proportion of patients with ExPH (CPET) or with intermediate/high probability of ExPH (ESE) had higher sPAP (p < 0.001), mPAP (p = 0.004) and higher TRV (p = 0.006), as well as higher right atrial area (p < 0.001) and indexed right atrial volume (p = 0.004). Total pulmonary vascular resistance (expressed by the ratio between TRV and the velocity-time integral at the level of the right ventricular outflow tract) was higher both in patients with ExPH and in those with intermediate/high probability of ExPH (p < 0.001). Patients with intermediate/high probability of ExPH at ESE showed a trend (p = 0.137) towards clinical worsening compared to those with low probability of ExPH. No patients with low probability of ExPH had a >20% increased CV risk score after 2 years. We found an association between higher NT-proBNP and the presence or intermediate/high probability of ExPH after 2 years (p = 0.048 at CPET, p = 0.033 at ESE). Conclusions: The assessment of ExPH may predict a trend of increasing CV risk score over time. If confirmed at a longer follow-up, ExPH could contribute to better risk stratification in HIV patients.

Impact of Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension on Right Ventricular Function and on Worsening of Cardiovascular Risk in HIV Patients

Madonna, Rosalinda;Ridolfi, Lorenzo;Morganti, Riccardo;Iapoce, Riccardo;De Caterina, Raffaele
2022-01-01

Abstract

Background and Aim: Exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension (ExPH) predicts clinical outcomes, such as all-cause mortality and cardiovascular (CV) hospitalizations, in patients with dyspnea on effort. We investigated its prognostic significance in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-affected patients. Methods: In 52 consecutive HIV patients with either low (n = 47) or intermediate probability (n = 5) of PH at rest, we evaluated-at time 0 and after 2 years-the prognostic determinants of CV risk, according to the 2015 European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) Guidelines. Patients were classified with or without ExPH at stress echocardiography (ESE) and cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). We then related ExPH at time 0 with clinical worsening (CV risk score increase >20% after 2 years). Results: Right ventricle (RV) systolic function was significantly reduced in patients with ExPH compared to those without ExPH at CPET. This also occurred in patients with intermediate/high probability compared to those with low probability of ExPH at ESE. The former exhibited worse values of TAPSE and FAC (p < 0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively). A significantly higher proportion of patients with ExPH (CPET) or with intermediate/high probability of ExPH (ESE) had higher sPAP (p < 0.001), mPAP (p = 0.004) and higher TRV (p = 0.006), as well as higher right atrial area (p < 0.001) and indexed right atrial volume (p = 0.004). Total pulmonary vascular resistance (expressed by the ratio between TRV and the velocity-time integral at the level of the right ventricular outflow tract) was higher both in patients with ExPH and in those with intermediate/high probability of ExPH (p < 0.001). Patients with intermediate/high probability of ExPH at ESE showed a trend (p = 0.137) towards clinical worsening compared to those with low probability of ExPH. No patients with low probability of ExPH had a >20% increased CV risk score after 2 years. We found an association between higher NT-proBNP and the presence or intermediate/high probability of ExPH after 2 years (p = 0.048 at CPET, p = 0.033 at ESE). Conclusions: The assessment of ExPH may predict a trend of increasing CV risk score over time. If confirmed at a longer follow-up, ExPH could contribute to better risk stratification in HIV patients.
2022
Madonna, Rosalinda; Ridolfi, Lorenzo; Morganti, Riccardo; Biondi, Filippo; Fabiani, Silvia; Forniti, Arianna; Iapoce, Riccardo; De Caterina, Raffaele
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1163022
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus 0
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 0
social impact