The chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 are involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Th1 lymphocytes are recruited by Th1 chemokines, secreted by damaged cells. In inflamed tissues, the attracted Th1 lymphocytes induce the IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha release, that stimulates the secretion of Th1 chemokines, initiating and reiterating an amplification feedback loop. Autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITD) are the most recurrent autoimmune diseases, including Graves' disease (GD) and autoimmune thyroiditis, clinically defined by thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism, respectively. Graves' ophthalmopathy is one of GD extrathyroidal manifestations, occurring in ~30-50% of GD patients. In the early phase of AITD, the Th1 immune response is prevalent, and a following switch to a Th2 immune response has been shown in the late, inactive, phase. The reviewed data underline the importance of chemokines in thyroid autoimmunity and suggest CXCR3-receptor and its chemokines as potential targets of novel drugs for these disorders.

Chemokines in thyroid autoimmunity

Ferrari, Silvia Martina;Paparo, Sabrina Rosaria;Ragusa, Francesca;Elia, Giusy;Ghionzoli, Marco;Antonelli, Alessandro;Fallahi, Poupak
2023-01-01

Abstract

The chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 are involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Th1 lymphocytes are recruited by Th1 chemokines, secreted by damaged cells. In inflamed tissues, the attracted Th1 lymphocytes induce the IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha release, that stimulates the secretion of Th1 chemokines, initiating and reiterating an amplification feedback loop. Autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITD) are the most recurrent autoimmune diseases, including Graves' disease (GD) and autoimmune thyroiditis, clinically defined by thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism, respectively. Graves' ophthalmopathy is one of GD extrathyroidal manifestations, occurring in ~30-50% of GD patients. In the early phase of AITD, the Th1 immune response is prevalent, and a following switch to a Th2 immune response has been shown in the late, inactive, phase. The reviewed data underline the importance of chemokines in thyroid autoimmunity and suggest CXCR3-receptor and its chemokines as potential targets of novel drugs for these disorders.
2023
Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Paparo, Sabrina Rosaria; Ragusa, Francesca; Elia, Giusy; Mazzi, Valeria; Patrizio, Armando; Ghionzoli, Marco; Varricchi, Gild...espandi
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1171428
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 3
  • Scopus 10
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 7
social impact