Doppler echocardiography is a fundamental instrument to understand heart damage during essential arterial hypertension. Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy may also be conveniently studied in its morphological and functional aspects by ultrasound application. Echocardiography can also provide important morphological and functional information in hypertensive patients for therapeutic management and prognostic stratification. In recent years, echocardiography has been enriched by very refined techniques that are capable of studying the physiopathological intramyocardial phenomena: (i) tissue Doppler (which studies intramyocardial velocities and time intervals and allows the analysis of strain and strain rate); (ii) integrated backscatter (which analyzes variations of myocardial reflectivity in decibels); (iii) transthoracic Doppler derived coronary flow reserve (which quantifies the vasodilator response of coronary velocities to a hyperaernic stimulation); (iv) myocardial echo-contrast-echocardiography (which studies the kinetics of ultrasound contrast microbubbles at the intrannyocardial level); and (v) real-time three-dimensional (3-D) echocardiography [which allows a more precise evaluation of left ventricular (LV) volumes and LV mass]. These new methodological approaches have recently been used in the hypertensive-clinical setting to provide a deeper knowledge of the complex physiopathological and histopathological mechanisms underlying the modifications induced by arterial hypertension at the myocardial tissue level (myocytes, collagen, microcirculation). This review shows the advancement of high-tech ultrasound applied to hypertensive heart disease, pointing out limitations and incremental potentialities in comparison with conventional echocardiography.
|Autori:||Di Bello V; Galderisi M; de Gregorio C; Ansalone G; Dini FL; Di Salvo G; Gallina S; Mele D; Sciomer S; Montisci R; Mondillo S; Marino PN|
|Titolo:||New echocardiographic technologies in the clinical management of hypertensive heart disease|
|Anno del prodotto:||2007|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|