The heterogeneity of muscarinic receptors has been well supported by differential characteristics between pirenzepine and atropine both in receptor binding and in whole tissue pharmacology studies. Under these conditions pirenzepine has been classified as a selective receptor antagonist with high affinity for M1 receptors. The antisecretory properties of pirenzepine on gastric acid and pepsin secretion may be attributed to the antagonistic activity of the drug on muscarinic M1 receptors of gastric intramural plexuses, whereas the effect on parietal muscarinic M2 receptors seems of less importance. Additional inhibitory mechanisms on gastric secretion may be represented by pirenzepine-induced increase in somatostatin release from gastrointestinal system. Significant cytoprotective properties of pirenzepine have been observed on a variety of experimentally induced peptic ulcerations. This protective activity may be due to pirenzepine-induced increase in gastric mucosal blood flow as well as to the increase in gastric transmural electric potential difference. In accordance with this pharmacodynamic profile of pirenzepine, numerous clinical studies have revealed its efficacy in the treatment of both duodenal and gastric ulcerations. In addition to this, the clinical usefulness of the drug has been demonstrated in Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, in stress ulceration, in acute gastrointestinal bleeding as well as in gastritis, duodenitis and non-ulcer dyspepsia. In most of the studies pirenzepine has been found to be well tolerated with a low incidence of antimuscarinic effects which may occur at salivary, ocular, cardiac and urinary sites. The clinical use of pirenzepine alone or in association with H2 blockers is recommended in the treatment of peptic ulcer patients, in the case of acute gastrointestinal haemorrhage and in patients non responders to H2 antagonists.
|Autori:||DEL TACCA M; DANESI R; BLANDIZZI C; BERNARDINI MC|
|Titolo:||A selective antimuscarinic agent: pirenzepine. Review of its pharmacologic and clinical properties|
|Anno del prodotto:||1989|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|