Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is known to be responsible for both hepatic and extrahepatic diseases (HCV-related extrahepatic diseases = HCV-EHDs). The most important systemic HCV-EHDs are mixed cryoglobulinemia and lymphoproliferative disorders, while the most frequent and clinically important endocrine HCV-EHDs are thyroid disorders and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). From a meta-analysis of the literature a significant association between HCV infection and thyroid autoimmunity and hypothyroidism has been reported. A high prevalence of thyroid cancer has been reported, too. Furthermore, several clinical epidemiologic studies have reported that HCV infection is associated to T2D. Many studies have linked Th1 immune response with HCV infection, thyroid autoimmunity, or diabetes. These findings suggest that a possible common immunological Th1 pattern could be the pathophysiological base of the association of HCV-EHDs, with thyroid autoimmunity and T2D. In fact, HCV infection of thyrocytes or beta-cells may act by upregulating CXCL10 secretion in these cells that is responsible for Th1 lymphocyte recruitment. Th1 response leads to increased IFNgamma and TNFalpha production that in turn stimulates CXCL10 secretion by the target cells, thus perpetuating the immune cascade. This process may lead to the appearance of thyroid autoimmune disorders or T2D in genetically predisposed subjects.
|Autori:||Antonelli, Alessandro; Ferri, C; Ferrari, Sm; Colaci, M; Fallahi, P.|
|Titolo:||Immunopathogenesis of HCV-related endocrine manifestations in chronic hepatitis and mixed cryoglobulinemia|
|Anno del prodotto:||2008|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|