Background: COVID-19 presents with a wide spectrum of clinical and radiological manifestations, including pleural effusion. The prevalence and prognostic impact of pleural effusion are still not entirely clear. Patients and methods: This is a retrospective, single-center study including a population of consecutive patients admitted to the University Hospital of Cisanello (Pisa) from March 2020 to January 2021 with a positive SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swab and SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia. The patients were divided into two populations based on the presence (n = 150) or absence (n = 515) of pleural effusion on chest CT scan, excluding patients with pre-existing pleural effusion. We collected laboratory data (hemoglobin, leukocytes, platelets, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin), worst PaO2/FiO(2) ratio as an index of respiratory gas exchange impairment, the extent of interstitial involvement related to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and data on intensity of care, length of stay and outcome (discharge or death). Results: The prevalence of pleural effusion was 23%. Patients with pleural effusion showed worse gas exchange (p < 0.001), longer average hospital stay (p < 0.001), need for more health care resources (p < 0.001) and higher mortality (p < 0.001) compared to patients without pleural effusion. By multivariate analysis, pleural effusion was found to be an independent negative prognostic factor compared with other variables such as increased C-reactive protein, greater extent of pneumonia and older age. Pleural effusion was present at the first CT scan in most patients (68%). Conclusions: Pleural effusion associated with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is a relatively frequent finding that is confirmed to be a negative prognostic factor. Identifying early prognostic factors in an endemic-prone disease such as COVID-19 is necessary to optimize its clinical management. Further clinical studies aimed at better characterizing pleural effusion in these patients will be appropriate in order to clarify its pathogenetic role.

Pleural Effusion in COVID-19 Pneumonia: Clinical and Prognostic Implications-An Observational, Retrospective Study

Cappelli, Sara;Casto, Elisabetta;Lomi, Marta;Pagano, Alessandra;Carrozzi, Laura;Celi, Alessandro
2023-01-01

Abstract

Background: COVID-19 presents with a wide spectrum of clinical and radiological manifestations, including pleural effusion. The prevalence and prognostic impact of pleural effusion are still not entirely clear. Patients and methods: This is a retrospective, single-center study including a population of consecutive patients admitted to the University Hospital of Cisanello (Pisa) from March 2020 to January 2021 with a positive SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal swab and SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia. The patients were divided into two populations based on the presence (n = 150) or absence (n = 515) of pleural effusion on chest CT scan, excluding patients with pre-existing pleural effusion. We collected laboratory data (hemoglobin, leukocytes, platelets, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin), worst PaO2/FiO(2) ratio as an index of respiratory gas exchange impairment, the extent of interstitial involvement related to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and data on intensity of care, length of stay and outcome (discharge or death). Results: The prevalence of pleural effusion was 23%. Patients with pleural effusion showed worse gas exchange (p < 0.001), longer average hospital stay (p < 0.001), need for more health care resources (p < 0.001) and higher mortality (p < 0.001) compared to patients without pleural effusion. By multivariate analysis, pleural effusion was found to be an independent negative prognostic factor compared with other variables such as increased C-reactive protein, greater extent of pneumonia and older age. Pleural effusion was present at the first CT scan in most patients (68%). Conclusions: Pleural effusion associated with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is a relatively frequent finding that is confirmed to be a negative prognostic factor. Identifying early prognostic factors in an endemic-prone disease such as COVID-19 is necessary to optimize its clinical management. Further clinical studies aimed at better characterizing pleural effusion in these patients will be appropriate in order to clarify its pathogenetic role.
2023
Cappelli, Sara; Casto, Elisabetta; Lomi, Marta; Pagano, Alessandra; Gabbrielli, Luciano; Pancani, Roberta; Aquilini, Ferruccio; Gemignani, Giulia; Car...espandi
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1184129
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