: The Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) has been known to regulate cholesterol and β-amyloid (Aβ) production, redistribution, and elimination, in the central nervous system (CNS). The ApoE ε4 polymorphic variant leads to impaired brain cholesterol homeostasis and amyloidogenic pathway, thus representing the major risk factor for Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Currently, less is known about the molecular mechanisms connecting ApoE ε4-related cholesterol metabolism and cholinergic system degeneration, one of the main AD pathological features. Herein, in vitro cholinergic neuron models were developed in order to study ApoE neuronal expression and investigate the possible interplay between cholesterol metabolism and cholinergic pathway impairment prompted by ε4 isoform. Particularly, alterations specifically occurring in ApoE ε4-carrying neurons (i.e. increased intracellular ApoE, amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Aβ levels, elevated apoptosis, and reduced cell survival) were recapitulated. ApoE ε4 expression was found to increase intracellular cholesterol accumulation, by regulating the related gene expression, while reducing cholesterol precursor acetyl-CoA, which in turn fuels the acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis route. In parallel, although the ACh intracellular signalling was activated, as demonstrated by the boosted extracellular ACh as well as increased IP3 and Ca2+, the PKCε activation via membrane translocation was surprisingly suppressed, probably explained by the cholesterol overload in ApoE ε4 neuron-like cells. Consequently, the PKC-dependent anti-apoptotic and neuroprotective roles results impaired, reliably adding to other causes of cell death prompted by ApoE ε4. Overall, the obtained data open the way to further critical considerations of ApoE ε4-dependent cholesterol metabolism dysregulation in the alteration of cholinergic pathway, neurotoxicity, and neuronal death.

Apolipoprotein E ε4 triggers neurotoxicity via cholesterol accumulation, acetylcholine dyshomeostasis, and PKCε mislocalization in cholinergic neuronal cells

Piccarducci, Rebecca;Giacomelli, Chiara;Bertilacchi, Maria Sofia;Di Giorgi, Nicoletta;Daniele, Simona;Signore, Giovanni;Marchetti, Laura
;
Martini, Claudia
2023-01-01

Abstract

: The Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) has been known to regulate cholesterol and β-amyloid (Aβ) production, redistribution, and elimination, in the central nervous system (CNS). The ApoE ε4 polymorphic variant leads to impaired brain cholesterol homeostasis and amyloidogenic pathway, thus representing the major risk factor for Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Currently, less is known about the molecular mechanisms connecting ApoE ε4-related cholesterol metabolism and cholinergic system degeneration, one of the main AD pathological features. Herein, in vitro cholinergic neuron models were developed in order to study ApoE neuronal expression and investigate the possible interplay between cholesterol metabolism and cholinergic pathway impairment prompted by ε4 isoform. Particularly, alterations specifically occurring in ApoE ε4-carrying neurons (i.e. increased intracellular ApoE, amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Aβ levels, elevated apoptosis, and reduced cell survival) were recapitulated. ApoE ε4 expression was found to increase intracellular cholesterol accumulation, by regulating the related gene expression, while reducing cholesterol precursor acetyl-CoA, which in turn fuels the acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis route. In parallel, although the ACh intracellular signalling was activated, as demonstrated by the boosted extracellular ACh as well as increased IP3 and Ca2+, the PKCε activation via membrane translocation was surprisingly suppressed, probably explained by the cholesterol overload in ApoE ε4 neuron-like cells. Consequently, the PKC-dependent anti-apoptotic and neuroprotective roles results impaired, reliably adding to other causes of cell death prompted by ApoE ε4. Overall, the obtained data open the way to further critical considerations of ApoE ε4-dependent cholesterol metabolism dysregulation in the alteration of cholinergic pathway, neurotoxicity, and neuronal death.
2023
Piccarducci, Rebecca; Giacomelli, Chiara; Bertilacchi, Maria Sofia; Benito-Martinez, Andrea; Di Giorgi, Nicoletta; Daniele, Simona; Signore, Giovanni;...espandi
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1191107
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