Levulinic acid production by acid-catalyzed hydrothermal conversion of (ligno)cellulosic biomass generates significant amounts of carbonaceous hydrochar, which is currently considered a final waste. In this work, the hydrochar recovered after the levulinic acid production, was subjected to cascade pyrolysis and chemical activation treatments (by H3PO4 or KOH), to synthesize activated carbons. The pyrolysis post-treatment was already effective in improving the surface properties of the raw hydrochar (Specific Surface Area: 388 m2/g, VP: 0.22 cm3/g, VMESO: 0.07 cm3/g, VMICRO: 0.14 cm3/g), by removing volatile compounds. KOH activation resulted as the most appropriate for further improving the surface properties of the pyrolyzed hydrochar, showing the best surface properties (Specific Surface Area: 1421 m2/g, VP: 0.63 cm3/g, VMESO: 0.10 cm3/g, VMICRO: 0.52 cm3/g), which synergistically makes it a promising system towards adsorption of CO2 (∼90 mg/g) and methylene blue (∼248 mg/g). In addition, promising surface properties can be achieved after direct chemical activation of the raw hazelnut shells, preferably by H3PO4 (Specific Surface Area: 1918 m2/g, VP: 1.34 cm3/g, VMESO: 0.82 cm3/g, VMICRO: 0.50 cm3/g), but this choice is not the smartest, as it does not allow the valorization of the cellulose fraction to levulinic acid. Our approach paves the way for possible uses of these hydrochars originating from the levulinic acid chain for new environmental applications, thus smartly closing the biorefinery loop of the hazelnut shells.

Conversion of the hydrochar recovered after levulinic acid production into activated carbon adsorbents

Licursi D.
Primo
;
Antonetti C.;Di Fidio N.;Fulignati S.;Puccini M.;Vitolo S.;Raspolli Galletti A. M.
Ultimo
2023-01-01

Abstract

Levulinic acid production by acid-catalyzed hydrothermal conversion of (ligno)cellulosic biomass generates significant amounts of carbonaceous hydrochar, which is currently considered a final waste. In this work, the hydrochar recovered after the levulinic acid production, was subjected to cascade pyrolysis and chemical activation treatments (by H3PO4 or KOH), to synthesize activated carbons. The pyrolysis post-treatment was already effective in improving the surface properties of the raw hydrochar (Specific Surface Area: 388 m2/g, VP: 0.22 cm3/g, VMESO: 0.07 cm3/g, VMICRO: 0.14 cm3/g), by removing volatile compounds. KOH activation resulted as the most appropriate for further improving the surface properties of the pyrolyzed hydrochar, showing the best surface properties (Specific Surface Area: 1421 m2/g, VP: 0.63 cm3/g, VMESO: 0.10 cm3/g, VMICRO: 0.52 cm3/g), which synergistically makes it a promising system towards adsorption of CO2 (∼90 mg/g) and methylene blue (∼248 mg/g). In addition, promising surface properties can be achieved after direct chemical activation of the raw hazelnut shells, preferably by H3PO4 (Specific Surface Area: 1918 m2/g, VP: 1.34 cm3/g, VMESO: 0.82 cm3/g, VMICRO: 0.50 cm3/g), but this choice is not the smartest, as it does not allow the valorization of the cellulose fraction to levulinic acid. Our approach paves the way for possible uses of these hydrochars originating from the levulinic acid chain for new environmental applications, thus smartly closing the biorefinery loop of the hazelnut shells.
2023
Licursi, D.; Antonetti, C.; Di Fidio, N.; Fulignati, S.; Benito, P.; Puccini, M.; Vitolo, S.; Raspolli Galletti, A. M.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1196308
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