Detecting and notifying ongoing volcanic explosive eruptions is crucial in supporting the Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC). However, local monitoring systems are missing at many active volcanoes, but long range infrasound monitoring might provide useful information if able to detect and notify volcanic explosive events. Indeed, many studies have already highlighted the utility and the potential of long-range infrasound monitoring for this aim, but still open questions remain concerning its actual efficiency and reliability. In this study we investigate the potential of the IS06 array (Cocos Island, Australia) of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) to remotely detect volcanic explosive eruptions in the Indonesian Arc between 2012 and 2019, when 11 volcanoes, positioned at a distance between 1000 and 2000 km from the array, erupted with an energy spanning from mild explosions to VEI (Volcanic Explosivity Index) 4 eruptions. For each volcano, using infrasonic data recorded at a single array and accounting for realistic infrasound propagation conditions, we calculate a range corrected Infrasound Parameter (IP) and propose two additional empirical thresholds on signal strength and persistency. The IP is used eventually to define an alert whenever an established threshold is exceeded and the corresponding reliability estimated. Re-sults show that the range corrected IP is highly reliable for events VEI = 3 or greater under favorable propa-gation conditions, but smaller scale short-lasting explosive eruptions still remain usually undetected. Unresolved ambiguity remains due to short spacing among volcanoes with respect to the array. For regional scale monitoring purposes, this can be solved only considering volcanic sectors rather than single volcanic edifices that, despite preventing unambiguous notification of a given volcano, might allow to increase the attention of the VAAC over a specific area.

Monitoring of Indonesian volcanoes with the IS06 infrasound array

Gheri D.
;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Detecting and notifying ongoing volcanic explosive eruptions is crucial in supporting the Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC). However, local monitoring systems are missing at many active volcanoes, but long range infrasound monitoring might provide useful information if able to detect and notify volcanic explosive events. Indeed, many studies have already highlighted the utility and the potential of long-range infrasound monitoring for this aim, but still open questions remain concerning its actual efficiency and reliability. In this study we investigate the potential of the IS06 array (Cocos Island, Australia) of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) to remotely detect volcanic explosive eruptions in the Indonesian Arc between 2012 and 2019, when 11 volcanoes, positioned at a distance between 1000 and 2000 km from the array, erupted with an energy spanning from mild explosions to VEI (Volcanic Explosivity Index) 4 eruptions. For each volcano, using infrasonic data recorded at a single array and accounting for realistic infrasound propagation conditions, we calculate a range corrected Infrasound Parameter (IP) and propose two additional empirical thresholds on signal strength and persistency. The IP is used eventually to define an alert whenever an established threshold is exceeded and the corresponding reliability estimated. Re-sults show that the range corrected IP is highly reliable for events VEI = 3 or greater under favorable propa-gation conditions, but smaller scale short-lasting explosive eruptions still remain usually undetected. Unresolved ambiguity remains due to short spacing among volcanoes with respect to the array. For regional scale monitoring purposes, this can be solved only considering volcanic sectors rather than single volcanic edifices that, despite preventing unambiguous notification of a given volcano, might allow to increase the attention of the VAAC over a specific area.
2023
Gheri, D.; Marchetti, E.; Belli, G.; Pichon, A. L.; Boulenger, V.; Hupe, P.; Ceranna, L.; Mialle, P.; Hereil, P.
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
1-s2.0-S0377027323000100-main_compressed.pdf

non disponibili

Tipologia: Versione finale editoriale
Licenza: NON PUBBLICO - accesso privato/ristretto
Dimensione 900.21 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
900.21 kB Adobe PDF   Visualizza/Apri   Richiedi una copia

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1198628
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 0
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 0
social impact