Despite receiving appropriate antiseizure medications (ASMs), a relevant percentage of neuropsychiatric patients do not benefit from this approach, and one reason is subtherapeutic ASMs plasma concentration (C(p)) due to improper drug adherence, interindividual pharmacokinetic differences, or metabolic interactions among different drugs. For these reasons, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) by measuring ASMs C(p) is an effective tool that improves pharmacological therapies in clinical practice. Based on these premises, in the present real-world study, we analyzed the C(p) of the most used ASMs in diverse medical conditions, which were assayed during the years 2018-2022 at the University Hospital of Pisa, including about 24,000 samples. This population was largely heterogeneous, and our database did not contain clinical information about the patients. The most used ASMs were Valproate (VPA: 54.5%) and Levetiracetam (LEV: 18.6%), followed by Oxcarbazepine (OxCBZ: 8.3%) and Carbamazepine (CBZ: 7.2%), whereas the associations LEV/VPA, Ethosuximide (ESM)/VPA, and CBZ/VPA were the most frequently proposed. In about 2/3 of assays, ASMs C(p) was in range, except for VPA, which was underdosed in almost half of the samples. Importantly, toxic levels of ASMs C(p) were found very rarely. For VPA, there was a decrease of mean C(p) across ages, from adolescents to older patients, while the C(p) of LEV, CBZ, OxCBZ, and Topiramate (TPM) showed a slight tendency to increase. When we compared females and males, we found that for VPA, the average age was higher for females, whereas women taking Lamotrigine (LTG) and OxCBZ were younger than men. Then, comparing ASMs used in neurologic and psychiatric disorders, based on the request form, it emerged that the mean C(p) of CBZ, OxCBZ, and LTG on samples collected in the Psychiatric Unit was lower compared to the Neurology and Child Neuropsychiatry Units. Finally, the ASMs subjected to multiple dosing starting from an initial subtherapeutic C(p) increased their level at different time points within a year, reaching the reference range for some of them. In conclusion, the present study suggests that TDM is widely applied to monitor ASMs C(p), finding many of them within the reference range, as a demonstration of its utility in clinical practice.

A 5-Year Study of Antiseizure Medications (ASMs) Monitoring in Patients with Neuropsychiatric Disorders in an Italian Clinical Center

Biso, Letizia
Primo
;
Carli, Marco;di Paolo, Antonello;Giorgi, Filippo Sean;Bocci, Guido
Penultimo
;
Scarselli, Marco
Ultimo
2023-01-01

Abstract

Despite receiving appropriate antiseizure medications (ASMs), a relevant percentage of neuropsychiatric patients do not benefit from this approach, and one reason is subtherapeutic ASMs plasma concentration (C(p)) due to improper drug adherence, interindividual pharmacokinetic differences, or metabolic interactions among different drugs. For these reasons, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) by measuring ASMs C(p) is an effective tool that improves pharmacological therapies in clinical practice. Based on these premises, in the present real-world study, we analyzed the C(p) of the most used ASMs in diverse medical conditions, which were assayed during the years 2018-2022 at the University Hospital of Pisa, including about 24,000 samples. This population was largely heterogeneous, and our database did not contain clinical information about the patients. The most used ASMs were Valproate (VPA: 54.5%) and Levetiracetam (LEV: 18.6%), followed by Oxcarbazepine (OxCBZ: 8.3%) and Carbamazepine (CBZ: 7.2%), whereas the associations LEV/VPA, Ethosuximide (ESM)/VPA, and CBZ/VPA were the most frequently proposed. In about 2/3 of assays, ASMs C(p) was in range, except for VPA, which was underdosed in almost half of the samples. Importantly, toxic levels of ASMs C(p) were found very rarely. For VPA, there was a decrease of mean C(p) across ages, from adolescents to older patients, while the C(p) of LEV, CBZ, OxCBZ, and Topiramate (TPM) showed a slight tendency to increase. When we compared females and males, we found that for VPA, the average age was higher for females, whereas women taking Lamotrigine (LTG) and OxCBZ were younger than men. Then, comparing ASMs used in neurologic and psychiatric disorders, based on the request form, it emerged that the mean C(p) of CBZ, OxCBZ, and LTG on samples collected in the Psychiatric Unit was lower compared to the Neurology and Child Neuropsychiatry Units. Finally, the ASMs subjected to multiple dosing starting from an initial subtherapeutic C(p) increased their level at different time points within a year, reaching the reference range for some of them. In conclusion, the present study suggests that TDM is widely applied to monitor ASMs C(p), finding many of them within the reference range, as a demonstration of its utility in clinical practice.
2023
Biso, Letizia; Carli, Marco; Kolachalam, Shivakumar; Monticelli, Giorgio; Calabrò, Pasquale Fabio; di Paolo, Antonello; Giorgi, Filippo Sean; Bocci, Guido; Scarselli, Marco
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1200409
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus 2
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 0
social impact