: Onivyde was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2015 for the treatment of solid tumors, including metastatic pancreatic cancer. It is designed to encapsulate irinotecan at high concentration, increase its blood-circulation lifetime, and deliver it to cells where it is enzymatically converted into SN-38, a metabolite with 100- to 1000-fold higher anticancer activity. Despite a rewarding clinical path, little is known about the physical state of encapsulated irinotecan within Onivyde and how this synthetic identity changes throughout the process from manufacturing to intracellular processing. Herein, we exploit irinotecan intrinsic fluorescence and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) to selectively probe the supramolecular organization of the drug. FLIM analysis on the manufacturer's formulation reveals the presence of two coexisting physical states within Onivyde liposomes: (i) gelated/precipitated irinotecan and (ii) liposome-membrane-associated irinotecan, the presence of which is not inferable from the manufacturer's indications. FLIM in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a membrane-impermeable dynamic quencher of irinotecan reveals rapid (within minutes) and complete chemical dissolution of the gelated/precipitated phase upon Onivyde dilution in standard cell-culturing medium with extensive leakage of the prodrug from liposomes. Indeed, confocal imaging and cell-proliferation assays show that encapsulated and nonencapsulated irinotecan formulations are similar in terms of cell-uptake mechanism and cell-division inhibition. Finally, 2-channel FLIM analysis discriminates the signature of irinotecan from that of its red-shifted SN-38 metabolite, demonstrating the appearance of the latter as a result of Onivyde intracellular processing. The findings presented in this study offer fresh insights into the synthetic identity of Onivyde and its transformation from production to in vitro administration. Moreover, these results serve as another validation of the effectiveness of FLIM analysis in elucidating the supramolecular organization of encapsulated fluorescent drugs. This research underscores the importance of leveraging advanced imaging techniques to deepen our understanding of drug formulations and optimize their performance in delivery applications.

Fluorescence Lifetime Nanoscopy of Liposomal Irinotecan Onivyde: From Manufacturing to Intracellular Processing

Signore, Giovanni;Pesce, Luca;
2023-01-01

Abstract

: Onivyde was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2015 for the treatment of solid tumors, including metastatic pancreatic cancer. It is designed to encapsulate irinotecan at high concentration, increase its blood-circulation lifetime, and deliver it to cells where it is enzymatically converted into SN-38, a metabolite with 100- to 1000-fold higher anticancer activity. Despite a rewarding clinical path, little is known about the physical state of encapsulated irinotecan within Onivyde and how this synthetic identity changes throughout the process from manufacturing to intracellular processing. Herein, we exploit irinotecan intrinsic fluorescence and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) to selectively probe the supramolecular organization of the drug. FLIM analysis on the manufacturer's formulation reveals the presence of two coexisting physical states within Onivyde liposomes: (i) gelated/precipitated irinotecan and (ii) liposome-membrane-associated irinotecan, the presence of which is not inferable from the manufacturer's indications. FLIM in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a membrane-impermeable dynamic quencher of irinotecan reveals rapid (within minutes) and complete chemical dissolution of the gelated/precipitated phase upon Onivyde dilution in standard cell-culturing medium with extensive leakage of the prodrug from liposomes. Indeed, confocal imaging and cell-proliferation assays show that encapsulated and nonencapsulated irinotecan formulations are similar in terms of cell-uptake mechanism and cell-division inhibition. Finally, 2-channel FLIM analysis discriminates the signature of irinotecan from that of its red-shifted SN-38 metabolite, demonstrating the appearance of the latter as a result of Onivyde intracellular processing. The findings presented in this study offer fresh insights into the synthetic identity of Onivyde and its transformation from production to in vitro administration. Moreover, these results serve as another validation of the effectiveness of FLIM analysis in elucidating the supramolecular organization of encapsulated fluorescent drugs. This research underscores the importance of leveraging advanced imaging techniques to deepen our understanding of drug formulations and optimize their performance in delivery applications.
2023
Bernardi, Mario; Signore, Giovanni; Moscardini, Aldo; Pugliese, Licia Anna; Pesce, Luca; Beltram, Fabio; Cardarelli, Francesco
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1204002
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