PurposeAdvanced thyroid cancer patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) can develop several adverse events (AEs), including adrenal insufficiency (AI).MethodsWe studied 55 patients treated with TKI for radioiodine-refractory or medullary thyroid cancer. The adrenal function was evaluated during follow-up by performing serum basal ACTH, and basal and ACTH-stimulated cortisol.ResultsTwenty-nine/55 (52.7%) patients developed subclinical AI during TKI treatment as demonstrated by a blunted cortisol response to ACTH stimulation. All cases showed normal values of serum sodium, potassium and blood pressure. All patients were immediately treated, and none showed an overt AI. Cases with AI were all negative for adrenal antibodies and did not show any adrenal gland alteration. Other causes of AI were excluded. The onset time of the AI, as measured in the subgroup with a first negative ACTH test, was < 12 months in 5/9 (55.6%), between 12 and 36 months in 2/9 (22.2%) and > 36 months in 2/9 (22.2%) cases. In our series, the only prognostic factor of AI was the elevated, although moderate, basal level of ACTH when the basal and stimulated cortisol were still normal. The glucocorticoid therapy improved fatigue in most patients.ConclusionsSubclinical AI can be developed in > 50% of advanced thyroid cancer patients treated with TKI. This AE can develop in a wide period ranging from < 12 to > 36 months. For this reason, AI must be looked for throughout the follow-up to be early recognized and treated. A periodic ACTH stimulation test, every 6-8 months, can be helpful.

Adrenal insufficiency in thyroid cancer patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors and detected by ACTH stimulation test

Matrone, A;Minaldi, E;Agate, L;Elisei, R
2023-01-01

Abstract

PurposeAdvanced thyroid cancer patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) can develop several adverse events (AEs), including adrenal insufficiency (AI).MethodsWe studied 55 patients treated with TKI for radioiodine-refractory or medullary thyroid cancer. The adrenal function was evaluated during follow-up by performing serum basal ACTH, and basal and ACTH-stimulated cortisol.ResultsTwenty-nine/55 (52.7%) patients developed subclinical AI during TKI treatment as demonstrated by a blunted cortisol response to ACTH stimulation. All cases showed normal values of serum sodium, potassium and blood pressure. All patients were immediately treated, and none showed an overt AI. Cases with AI were all negative for adrenal antibodies and did not show any adrenal gland alteration. Other causes of AI were excluded. The onset time of the AI, as measured in the subgroup with a first negative ACTH test, was < 12 months in 5/9 (55.6%), between 12 and 36 months in 2/9 (22.2%) and > 36 months in 2/9 (22.2%) cases. In our series, the only prognostic factor of AI was the elevated, although moderate, basal level of ACTH when the basal and stimulated cortisol were still normal. The glucocorticoid therapy improved fatigue in most patients.ConclusionsSubclinical AI can be developed in > 50% of advanced thyroid cancer patients treated with TKI. This AE can develop in a wide period ranging from < 12 to > 36 months. For this reason, AI must be looked for throughout the follow-up to be early recognized and treated. A periodic ACTH stimulation test, every 6-8 months, can be helpful.
2023
Valerio, L; Giani, C; Matrone, A; Pontillo-Contillo, B; Minaldi, E; Agate, L; Molinaro, E; Elisei, R
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1207907
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