Simple Summary Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a thermogenic tissue that greatly contributes to preventing neonatal hypothermia by activating biochemical and endocrine processes because of cold stress. The presence of uncoupling proteins and adrenergic receptors in the brown adipocyte initiates the metabolic pathway for heat production. However, the presence and absence of BAT, as well as its activation, location, and the degree of thermogenic response, are traits that depend on intrinsic and extrinsic factors of mammals. The present review aims to discuss the neuromodulation mechanisms of thermoregulation and the importance of BAT, emphasizing the analysis of the biochemical, physiological, and genetic factors that determine the distribution, amount, and efficiency of this energy resource in newborns of different species. Hypothermia is one of the most common causes of mortality in neonates, and it could be developed after birth because the uterus temperature is more elevated than the extrauterine temperature. Neonates use diverse mechanisms to thermoregulate, such as shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis. These strategies can be more efficient in some species, but not in others, i.e., altricials, which have the greatest difficulty with achieving thermoneutrality. In addition, there are anatomical and neurological differences in mammals, which may present different distributions and amounts of brown fat. This article aims to discuss the neuromodulation mechanisms of thermoregulation and the importance of brown fat in the thermogenesis of newborn mammals, emphasizing the analysis of the biochemical, physiological, and genetic factors that determine the distribution, amount, and efficiency of this energy resource in newborns of different species. It has been concluded that is vital to understand and minimize hypothermia causes in newborns, which is one of the main causes of mortality in neonates. This would be beneficial for both animals and producers.

The Role of Brown Adipose Tissue and Energy Metabolism in Mammalian Thermoregulation during the Perinatal Period

Gazzano, Angelo;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Simple Summary Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a thermogenic tissue that greatly contributes to preventing neonatal hypothermia by activating biochemical and endocrine processes because of cold stress. The presence of uncoupling proteins and adrenergic receptors in the brown adipocyte initiates the metabolic pathway for heat production. However, the presence and absence of BAT, as well as its activation, location, and the degree of thermogenic response, are traits that depend on intrinsic and extrinsic factors of mammals. The present review aims to discuss the neuromodulation mechanisms of thermoregulation and the importance of BAT, emphasizing the analysis of the biochemical, physiological, and genetic factors that determine the distribution, amount, and efficiency of this energy resource in newborns of different species. Hypothermia is one of the most common causes of mortality in neonates, and it could be developed after birth because the uterus temperature is more elevated than the extrauterine temperature. Neonates use diverse mechanisms to thermoregulate, such as shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis. These strategies can be more efficient in some species, but not in others, i.e., altricials, which have the greatest difficulty with achieving thermoneutrality. In addition, there are anatomical and neurological differences in mammals, which may present different distributions and amounts of brown fat. This article aims to discuss the neuromodulation mechanisms of thermoregulation and the importance of brown fat in the thermogenesis of newborn mammals, emphasizing the analysis of the biochemical, physiological, and genetic factors that determine the distribution, amount, and efficiency of this energy resource in newborns of different species. It has been concluded that is vital to understand and minimize hypothermia causes in newborns, which is one of the main causes of mortality in neonates. This would be beneficial for both animals and producers.
2023
Bienboire-Frosini, Cécile; Wang, Dehua; Marcet-Rius, Míriam; Villanueva-García, Dina; Gazzano, Angelo; Domínguez-Oliva, Adriana; Olmos-Hernández, Adri...espandi
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1214029
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