The central objective of the metamorphosis of discovery science into biomedical applications is to serve the purpose of patients and curtail the global disease burden. The journey from the discovery of DNA methylation (DNAm) as a biological process to its emergence as a diagnostic tool is one of the finest examples of such metamorphosis and has taken nearly a century. Particularly in the last decade, the application of DNA methylation studies in the clinic has been standardized more than ever before, with great potential to diagnose a multitude of diseases that are associated with a burgeoning number of genes with this epigenetic alteration. Fetal DNAm detection is becoming useful for noninvasive prenatal testing, whereas, in very preterm infants, DNAm is also shown to be a potential biological indicator of prenatal risk factors. In the context of cancer, liquid biopsy-based DNA-methylation profiling is offering valuable epigenetic biomarkers for noninvasive early-stage diagnosis. In this review, we focus on the applications of DNA methylation in prenatal diagnosis for delivering timely therapy before or after birth and in detecting early-stage cancers for better clinical outcomes. Furthermore, we also provide an up-to-date commercial landscape of DNAm biomarkers for cancer detection and screening of cancers of unknown origin.

DNA Methylation in the Fields of Prenatal Diagnosis and Early Detection of Cancers

Coppedè, Fabio
Primo
;
Stoccoro, Andrea;
2023-01-01

Abstract

The central objective of the metamorphosis of discovery science into biomedical applications is to serve the purpose of patients and curtail the global disease burden. The journey from the discovery of DNA methylation (DNAm) as a biological process to its emergence as a diagnostic tool is one of the finest examples of such metamorphosis and has taken nearly a century. Particularly in the last decade, the application of DNA methylation studies in the clinic has been standardized more than ever before, with great potential to diagnose a multitude of diseases that are associated with a burgeoning number of genes with this epigenetic alteration. Fetal DNAm detection is becoming useful for noninvasive prenatal testing, whereas, in very preterm infants, DNAm is also shown to be a potential biological indicator of prenatal risk factors. In the context of cancer, liquid biopsy-based DNA-methylation profiling is offering valuable epigenetic biomarkers for noninvasive early-stage diagnosis. In this review, we focus on the applications of DNA methylation in prenatal diagnosis for delivering timely therapy before or after birth and in detecting early-stage cancers for better clinical outcomes. Furthermore, we also provide an up-to-date commercial landscape of DNAm biomarkers for cancer detection and screening of cancers of unknown origin.
2023
Coppedè, Fabio; Bhaduri, Utsa; Stoccoro, Andrea; Nicolì, Vanessa; Di Venere, Eleonora; Merla, Giuseppe
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1218049
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