The aim was to design and evaluate a chitosan-based conjugate providing high mucoadhesiveness and antibacterial activity for ocular infections treatment. Chitosan was conjugated with maleic acid via amide bond formation and infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) allowed characterization and quantification of conjugated groups, respectively. Biocompatibility was tested via hemolysis assay and Hen's Egg-Chorioallantoic membrane test. Characterization of the pH and osmolarity of hydrogels was followed by mucoadhesion assessment utilizing rheology. In addition, antibacterial studies were carried out towards Escherichia coli by broth microdilution test and agar-disk diffusion assay. In vivo studies were carried out following the already established Draize test and determining pharmacokinetic profile of dexamethasone in aqueous humour. The conjugate exhibited a degree of modification of 50.05 % and no toxicity or irritability. Moreover, mucoadhesive properties were enhanced in 2.68-fold and 1.81-fold for elastic and viscous modulus, respectively. Furthermore, rheological synergism revealed the presence of a gel-like structure. Additionally, broth microdilution and agar disk diffusion studies exhibited enhancement in antibacterial activity. Finally, in vivo studies manifested that hydrogels were highly tolerated, evidencing promising characteristics of the developed conjugate. The conjugate presented promising antimicrobial, long lasting mucoadhesive features and highly improved pharmacokinetics, leading to a revolutionizing approach in the treatment of ocular bacterial infections.

Ocular antibacterial chitosan-maleic acid hydrogels: In vitro and in vivo studies for a promising approach with enhanced mucoadhesion

Grassiri B.;Piras A. M.;Zambito Y.;Fabiano A.;
2024-01-01

Abstract

The aim was to design and evaluate a chitosan-based conjugate providing high mucoadhesiveness and antibacterial activity for ocular infections treatment. Chitosan was conjugated with maleic acid via amide bond formation and infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) allowed characterization and quantification of conjugated groups, respectively. Biocompatibility was tested via hemolysis assay and Hen's Egg-Chorioallantoic membrane test. Characterization of the pH and osmolarity of hydrogels was followed by mucoadhesion assessment utilizing rheology. In addition, antibacterial studies were carried out towards Escherichia coli by broth microdilution test and agar-disk diffusion assay. In vivo studies were carried out following the already established Draize test and determining pharmacokinetic profile of dexamethasone in aqueous humour. The conjugate exhibited a degree of modification of 50.05 % and no toxicity or irritability. Moreover, mucoadhesive properties were enhanced in 2.68-fold and 1.81-fold for elastic and viscous modulus, respectively. Furthermore, rheological synergism revealed the presence of a gel-like structure. Additionally, broth microdilution and agar disk diffusion studies exhibited enhancement in antibacterial activity. Finally, in vivo studies manifested that hydrogels were highly tolerated, evidencing promising characteristics of the developed conjugate. The conjugate presented promising antimicrobial, long lasting mucoadhesive features and highly improved pharmacokinetics, leading to a revolutionizing approach in the treatment of ocular bacterial infections.
2024
Sanchez Armengol, E.; Grassiri, B.; Piras, A. M.; Zambito, Y.; Fabiano, A.; Laffleur, F.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1223379
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