Background and Objectives: The diagnosis of anaphylaxis comprehensively depends on both situational information and laboratory investigations. For this purpose, serum tryptase concentration is examined as an indicator of systemic mast cell mediator release, linked to an underlying anaphylactic process. Increased levels of tryptase may occur in some events different from anaphylaxis, but usually information from crime scene investigations is lacking and autoptic findings are not specific. For legal reasons, it is required to achieve a definite diagnosis of mast cell degranulation that can lead to a certain diagnosis of death from anaphylaxis. Immunohistochemistry seems to be a relatively simple, reliable, and easily repeatable method that can assist the forensic pathologist in the differential diagnosis of death from anaphylaxis. Materials and Methods: This work provides an overview of the current literature on immunohistochemical methods useful in the determination process of anaphylactic-related deaths. A systematic search, according to the PRISMA statement, was performed in databases to identify studies investigating immunohistochemical targets related to anaphylaxis death. Results: This work underscores the importance of anaphylaxis mediators such as tryptase, CD117, and chymase in the immunohistochemical analysis of anaphylactic deaths. Conclusions: According to the reviewed literature, the diagnosis of death due to anaphylaxis should depend not just on the suspicion of an anaphylactic reaction but also on confirming mast cell degranulation through the identification of IHC positivity for inflammatory mediators, particularly in the respiratory tract.

Death Due to Anaphylactic Reaction: The Role of the Forensic Pathologist in an Accurate Postmortem Diagnosis

Maiese, Aniello
;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Background and Objectives: The diagnosis of anaphylaxis comprehensively depends on both situational information and laboratory investigations. For this purpose, serum tryptase concentration is examined as an indicator of systemic mast cell mediator release, linked to an underlying anaphylactic process. Increased levels of tryptase may occur in some events different from anaphylaxis, but usually information from crime scene investigations is lacking and autoptic findings are not specific. For legal reasons, it is required to achieve a definite diagnosis of mast cell degranulation that can lead to a certain diagnosis of death from anaphylaxis. Immunohistochemistry seems to be a relatively simple, reliable, and easily repeatable method that can assist the forensic pathologist in the differential diagnosis of death from anaphylaxis. Materials and Methods: This work provides an overview of the current literature on immunohistochemical methods useful in the determination process of anaphylactic-related deaths. A systematic search, according to the PRISMA statement, was performed in databases to identify studies investigating immunohistochemical targets related to anaphylaxis death. Results: This work underscores the importance of anaphylaxis mediators such as tryptase, CD117, and chymase in the immunohistochemical analysis of anaphylactic deaths. Conclusions: According to the reviewed literature, the diagnosis of death due to anaphylaxis should depend not just on the suspicion of an anaphylactic reaction but also on confirming mast cell degranulation through the identification of IHC positivity for inflammatory mediators, particularly in the respiratory tract.
2023
Del Duca, Fabio; Manetti, Alice Chiara; Maiese, Aniello; Napoletano, Gabriele; Ghamlouch, Alessandro; Pascale, Natascha; Giorgio, Bolino; Paola, Frati; Russa, Raffaele La
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1228187
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